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285 Possible Causes for 3-4 Hz Spikes, Active Generalized Spikes and Polyspikes, Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

  • West Syndrome

    Urine organic acids, amino acids and serum biotinidase are done. CT or MRI scan of the brain is done before the treatment is started.[epainassist.com] In majority of the cases, abnormalities are found. EEG is a vital test, which is done to find out hypsarrhythmia, as this is crucial to the diagnosis.[epainassist.com]

  • Epilepsy

    spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[brain.oxfordjournals.org] […] to 8 years of age, in an otherwise apparently healthy child. 3 The classic electroencephalogram (EEG) shows generalized spike-wave bursts (of 3 Hz) with normal background[doi.org] Hz Spike and Wave Discharges, Epilepsia, 31, 5, (557-566), (2007).[doi.org]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The EEG shows generalized polyspike and spike-and-wave discharges, frequently precipitated by photic stimulation.[clinicalgate.com] Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[reference.medscape.com] We included patients with single or multiple generalised seizures, in whom at least one active EEG showing a generalised spike and wave or polyspike and wave pattern was obtained[jnnp.bmj.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Other information is obtained from tests such as: EEG (electroencephalogram) : people with EGTCS have normal EEG background and generalized spike wave or polyspike wave activity[epilepsy.com] The EEG shows generalised spike and wave discharges of 3 to 4 Hz and some with photic sensitivity. This is potentially a lifelong epilepsy.[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    spike-polyspike and waves.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) in JME shows interictal epileptiform discharges such as generalized spikes, polyspikes, bilateral-synchronous 4-6/s spike-wave complexes[go.galegroup.com] We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical 3-Hz generalized[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] 4 Hz spikes and waves in all regions of the brain 1 st -line : valproic acid Avoid triggers : sleep deprivation, alcohol, drugs, flickering lights 60% are seizure -free under[amboss.com] Her EEG showed 34 Hz spike and wave discharges. She had a daughter with childhood absence epilepsy, and two sisters and a cousin with seizures (fig 2 , family 1).[jnnp.bmj.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    EEG usually shows generalized spike-wave activity interictally and during seizures and background activity can show various degrees of slowing.[orpha.net] […] presence of generalized spike- or polyspike-wave EEG discharges at 2-3 Hz, without focal spike discharges; and (4) exclusion of severe and benign myoclonic epilepsy (SME,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] tonic-clonic seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. 1, 2 The electroencephalogram (EEG) shows generalized spike- or polyspike-wave activity at more than 2.5 Hz without[jamanetwork.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Interictal findings include bursts of generalized and irregular spike-and-waves and polyspike-and-waves, in a frequency of 3-5 Hz and frontocentral dominance 24 ( Fig 2 ).[scielo.br] Diagnostic methods Diagnosis relies on the clinical features and on electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded awake and during sleep, that displays a generalized 3-4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave[orpha.net] Generalized 3-4 Hz spike or polyspike slow-wave complexes. Neuro Imaging: Not usually required. Mainly from other IGEs such as CAE or Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME).[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    Interictal EEG showed findings characteristic of LGS: generalized slow spike-wave complexes, multifocal sharp waves, generalized polyspikes and paroxysmal fast activity during[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Hz theta and G PSW Rarely M Dravet/SIME Febrile, other seizures at 2–3 years Slow with irregular spike wave Rare Rare Yes M AA GTC Focal West Usually Hypsarrhythmia Yes Yes[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] […] and more frequent, consisting of polyspikes and slow waves REM sleep – Decreased spike waves Ictal EEG may demonstrate the following characteristics: Tonic seizure – Diffuse[emedicine.medscape.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    EEGs showed bursts of generalized spike and polyspike activity following tactile stimulation associated with the clinical seizures.[researchgate.net] In 22 months, four adult patients with myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic, and clonic seizures following tactile stimulation were identified.[researchgate.net]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

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