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330 Possible Causes for 3-4 Hz Spikes, Paroxysmal Activity - Spikes, Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

  • West Syndrome

    Urine organic acids, amino acids and serum biotinidase are done. CT or MRI scan of the brain is done before the treatment is started.[epainassist.com] In majority of the cases, abnormalities are found. EEG is a vital test, which is done to find out hypsarrhythmia, as this is crucial to the diagnosis.[epainassist.com]

  • Epilepsy

    At 9 years, video EEG monitoring showed a striking pattern of interictal slow spike-wave and paroxysmal fast activity, maximal over the right, initially unaffected, hemisphere[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] to 8 years of age, in an otherwise apparently healthy child. 3 The classic electroencephalogram (EEG) shows generalized spike-wave bursts (of 3 Hz) with normal background[doi.org] […] and a focal paroxysmal abnormality (spikes and slow waves); (d) occurrence at any age in childhood and adulthood; (e) frequently demonstrable aetiology (tumor, vascular);[medlink.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    This was referred to as posterior paroxysmal activity by Holmes et al.[euroformhealthcare.biz] Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[reference.medscape.com] Paroxysmally, rhythmic θ-activity at 4 to 5 Hz appears in the centroparietal areas, as do fast bilateral spike-waves, which may be associated later with variable focal or[neupsykey.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Generalized spike-wave discharges and diffuse paroxysmal fast activity were categorized as interictal and ictal, based on duration of less than 10 seconds or greater, respectively[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] 4 Hz spikes and waves in all regions of the brain 1 st -line : valproic acid Avoid triggers : sleep deprivation, alcohol, drugs, flickering lights 60% are seizure -free under[amboss.com] Her EEG showed 34 Hz spike and wave discharges. She had a daughter with childhood absence epilepsy, and two sisters and a cousin with seizures (fig 2 , family 1).[jnnp.bmj.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    - or polyspike-wave activity at more than 2.5 Hz without generalized paroxysmal fast activity or focal spikes.[jamanetwork.com] […] presence of generalized spike- or polyspike-wave EEG discharges at 2-3 Hz, without focal spike discharges; and (4) exclusion of severe and benign myoclonic epilepsy (SME,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] EEG shows regular and irregular bilaterally synchronous 2- to 3-Hz spike-waves and polyspike patterns with a 4- to 7-Hz background. 84% of affected children show normal development[ipfs.io]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    The discharge is heterogeneous, often asymmetrical and may include irregular spike and slow wave complexes, fast and other paroxysmal activity.[en.wikipedia.org] Diagnostic methods Diagnosis relies on the clinical features and on electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded awake and during sleep, that displays a generalized 3-4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave[orpha.net] Generalized 3-4 Hz spike or polyspike slow-wave complexes. Neuro Imaging: Not usually required. Mainly from other IGEs such as CAE or Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME).[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    The EEG shows generalised spike and wave discharges of 3 to 4 Hz and some with photic sensitivity. This is potentially a lifelong epilepsy.[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) in JME shows interictal epileptiform discharges such as generalized spikes, polyspikes, bilateral-synchronous 4-6/s spike-wave complexes[go.galegroup.com] Myoclonic jerks appear to be time-locked to generalized 3-5 Hz spike-and wave complexes [8]. Photoparoxysmal response was seen in 40% of patients.[go.galegroup.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Encephalopathy

    […] and paroxysmal bursts of sharp and slow waves, these drugs increase epileptiform activity in known epileptic patients, clozapine increase bilateral spike waves discharges[slideshare.net] […] delta bursts, that is called as paradoxical arousal response 18. * Background slowing * Increased theta delta activity * Paroxysmal sharp waves * Theta bursts * Delta bursts[slideshare.net] * Spike discharges *Triphasic waves * FIRDA * OIRDA * TIRDA * Alpha / theta coma Periodic pattern Spindle coma ECS 19.[slideshare.net]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Uremic Encephalopathy

    […] discharges (PLEDS). [37] In hypokalemia, diffuse slow activity can be seen together with paroxysmal delta/theta activity, as well as focal paroxysms of sharp waves and spike-waves[neurologyindia.com] ., frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA), or spikes and sharp waves as well as spike-wave discharges in temporal regions. [37] In hyponatremia, EEG detects[neurologyindia.com] […] diffuse slowing in the theta range, followed by paroxysmal delta activity and FIRDA or periodic delta waves, as well as the occurrence of periodic lateralized epileptiform[neurologyindia.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

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