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272 Possible Causes for 3-4 Hz Spikes, Polyspike on Photic Stimulation, Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

  • West Syndrome

    Urine organic acids, amino acids and serum biotinidase are done. CT or MRI scan of the brain is done before the treatment is started.[epainassist.com] In majority of the cases, abnormalities are found. EEG is a vital test, which is done to find out hypsarrhythmia, as this is crucial to the diagnosis.[epainassist.com]

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Photic stimulation and hyperventilation were performed in all. RESULTS: Nineteen (eight men, 11 women) patients with BAFME were included in this study.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[reference.medscape.com] […] wave in burst or isolation  Photic stimulation 40%  Theta rhythm of 5-6Hz in central and vertex 95% 43. 17 m. child with SW induced by opening and closing eyelids Recurrence[slideshare.net]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Two cases of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) presented with myoclonic jerks and EEG activation after eye closure, without sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) in JME shows interictal epileptiform discharges such as generalized spikes, polyspikes, bilateral-synchronous 4-6/s spike-wave complexes[go.galegroup.com] These discharges may be evoked by photic stimulation (blinking lights) and/or hyperventilation.[en.wikipedia.org]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Specific EEG changes may be seen during photic stimulation. EEG abnormalities are more likely or increased with sleep deprivation and during sleep.[epilepsy.com] The EEG shows generalised spike and wave discharges of 3 to 4 Hz and some with photic sensitivity. This is potentially a lifelong epilepsy.[pennsw.com.au] Other information is obtained from tests such as: EEG (electroencephalogram) : people with EGTCS have normal EEG background and generalized spike wave or polyspike wave activity[epilepsy.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Epilepsy

    […] to 8 years of age, in an otherwise apparently healthy child. 3 The classic electroencephalogram (EEG) shows generalized spike-wave bursts (of 3 Hz) with normal background[doi.org] Hz Spike and Wave Discharges, Epilepsia, 31, 5, (557-566), (2007).[doi.org] […] childhood-onset epilepsy, making it the most common form of pediatric epilepsy. 1,2 The syndrome is characterized by daily frequent but brief staring spells, typically beginning at 4[doi.org]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    These discharges are often precipitated by hyperventilation, sleep deprivation, and intermittent photic stimulation (IPS).[epilepsy.com] 4 Hz spikes and waves in all regions of the brain 1 st -line : valproic acid Avoid triggers : sleep deprivation, alcohol, drugs, flickering lights 60% are seizure -free under[amboss.com] Her EEG showed 34 Hz spike and wave discharges. She had a daughter with childhood absence epilepsy, and two sisters and a cousin with seizures (fig 2 , family 1).[jnnp.bmj.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    Photic stimulation may trigger generalised spike/wave or myoclonic astatic seizures.[pennsw.com.au] […] presence of generalized spike- or polyspike-wave EEG discharges at 2-3 Hz, without focal spike discharges; and (4) exclusion of severe and benign myoclonic epilepsy (SME,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Intermittent photic stimulation may trigger generalized spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave, and myoclonic-atonic seizures.[medlink.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    However, on EEG, intermittent photic stimulation often facilitates generalized discharges and absences.[medlink.com] Diagnostic methods Diagnosis relies on the clinical features and on electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded awake and during sleep, that displays a generalized 3-4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave[orpha.net] Generalized 3-4 Hz spike or polyspike slow-wave complexes. Neuro Imaging: Not usually required. Mainly from other IGEs such as CAE or Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME).[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    Hz theta and G PSW Rarely M Dravet/SIME Febrile, other seizures at 2–3 years Slow with irregular spike wave Rare Rare Yes M AA GTC Focal West Usually Hypsarrhythmia Yes Yes[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] […] epileptic syndromes Syndrome Age of onset EEG Tonic seizure Atonic seizure Intellect impaired Other seizure types LGS 1–8 years 80–90% in sleep Some Yes All MAE/Doose 1–5 years 4[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Type 3

    Epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst in electroencephalography (EEG) can evolve into a few types of epileptic syndromes. We present here an unusual case of early myoclonic encephalopathy that evolved into migrating partial seizures in infancy. A female neonate initially had erratic myoclonus movements,[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

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