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264 Possible Causes for 3-4 Hz Spikes, Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

  • West Syndrome

    Urine organic acids, amino acids and serum biotinidase are done. CT or MRI scan of the brain is done before the treatment is started.[epainassist.com] In majority of the cases, abnormalities are found. EEG is a vital test, which is done to find out hypsarrhythmia, as this is crucial to the diagnosis.[epainassist.com]

  • Epilepsy

    […] to 8 years of age, in an otherwise apparently healthy child. 3 The classic electroencephalogram (EEG) shows generalized spike-wave bursts (of 3 Hz) with normal background[doi.org] Hz Spike and Wave Discharges, Epilepsia, 31, 5, (557-566), (2007).[doi.org] […] childhood-onset epilepsy, making it the most common form of pediatric epilepsy. 1,2 The syndrome is characterized by daily frequent but brief staring spells, typically beginning at 4[doi.org]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Absence Seizure

    In electroencephalography (EEG), generalized 3-4 Hz spike and slow wave complexes indicate an absence seizure.[symptoma.com] Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[emedicine.com] 4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave complexes on EEG. [6] In childhood absence epilepsy, seizures are frequent and brief, lasting just a few seconds (pyknoleptic).[emedicine.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[reference.medscape.com] Her EEG showed 34 Hz spike and wave discharges. She had a daughter with childhood absence epilepsy, and two sisters and a cousin with seizures (fig 2 , family 1).[jnnp.bmj.com] […] during course of epilepsy.  Ictal EEG: generalized, high-amplitude 3 Hz spike and slow-wave complexes, lasting 4–20 s.  Generally responsive to antiepileptic drug (AED)[slideshare.net]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    The EEG shows generalised spike and wave discharges of 3 to 4 Hz and some with photic sensitivity. This is potentially a lifelong epilepsy.[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) in JME shows interictal epileptiform discharges such as generalized spikes, polyspikes, bilateral-synchronous 4-6/s spike-wave complexes[go.galegroup.com] Myoclonic jerks appear to be time-locked to generalized 3-5 Hz spike-and wave complexes [8]. Photoparoxysmal response was seen in 40% of patients.[go.galegroup.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    4 Hz spikes and waves in all regions of the brain 1 st -line : valproic acid Avoid triggers : sleep deprivation, alcohol, drugs, flickering lights 60% are seizure -free under[amboss.com] Her EEG showed 34 Hz spike and wave discharges. She had a daughter with childhood absence epilepsy, and two sisters and a cousin with seizures (fig 2 , family 1).[jnnp.bmj.com] The EEG usually shows asymptomatic 3 to 4 Hz generalized spike/polyspike discharges, but often video-EEG after partial sleep deprivation with recording in sleep and awakening[medlink.com]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    […] presence of generalized spike- or polyspike-wave EEG discharges at 2-3 Hz, without focal spike discharges; and (4) exclusion of severe and benign myoclonic epilepsy (SME,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] EEG shows regular and irregular bilaterally synchronous 2- to 3-Hz spike-waves and polyspike patterns with a 4- to 7-Hz background. 84% of affected children show normal development[ipfs.io] […] before onset of epilepsy and absence of organic cerebral abnormalities; (2) onset of myoclonic, myoclonic-astatic or astatic seizures between 7 months and 6 years of age; (3)[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic–clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 34Hz spike and multispike–slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[doi.org] […] consist of behavioral arrest with or without automatisms, usually last 30-60 seconds, and demonstrate a characteristic 3-Hz generalized spike-wave (GSW) pattern on EEG, often[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ., 1977) or bicuculline (Steriade and Contreras, 1998) led to 3-4 Hz oscillations with no sign of spike-and-wave discharge.[scholarpedia.org]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Diagnostic methods Diagnosis relies on the clinical features and on electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded awake and during sleep, that displays a generalized 3-4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave[orpha.net] Generalized 3-4 Hz spike or polyspike slow-wave complexes. Neuro Imaging: Not usually required. Mainly from other IGEs such as CAE or Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME).[pennsw.com.au] Childhood absence epilepsy with tonicclonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3-4-Hz spike and multispikeslow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24.[books.google.es]

    Missing: Urine Organic Acids Abnormal

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