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90 Possible Causes for Abnormal Renal Function, Cotton Wool Spots, Headache

  • Preeclampsia

    Other renal function tests such as serum creatinine and creatinine clearance are abnormal in 50% to 70% of the cases. 62 Hemoconcentration and increased blood viscosity are[] The patient may experience severe headaches; pain in the stomach, dizziness and shortness of breath.[] This ischemic state can manifest as reduced arteriolar caliber and arteriovenous ratio, retinal haemorrhages, oedema and cotton wool spots secondary to arteriolar damage,[]

  • Multiple Myeloma

    In addition, bortezomib clearance is independent of renal function. 92 Diagnostic considerations Patients with symptoms or laboratory abnormalities, which may be attributable[] A 72-year-old man, who had been in complete remission from multiple myeloma for 1 year after treatment that included lenalidomide, presented with confusion, headache, nausea[] Physical Examination On head, ears, eyes, nose, and throat (HEENT) examination, the eyes may show exudative macular detachment, retinal hemorrhage, or cotton-wool spots.[]

  • Malignant Hypertension

    Abnormal renal function at presentation still predicts worse outcome.[] A 62-year-old man with a history of hypertension was referred secondary to bilateral temporal scotomas and persistent headache for 3 days.[] Cotton-wool spots, or cytoid bodies, are not exudates, but rather are retinal infarcts. Hypertensive optic neuropathy is a late finding.[]

  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    Results may include the following: Abnormal kidney function tests and urinalysis in patients with renal involvement Rheumatoid factor is positive in a low titer in two thirds[] A 54-year-old male, without any related medical history developed a severe headache.[] Retinal vascular manifestations range from relatively benign cotton-wool spots, with or without associated intraretinal hemorrhages, to more severe vaso-occlusive disease,[]

  • Weil's Disease

    Most cases involve flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, muscle aches, headaches).[] On the 7th day bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhages, anterior uveitis, and peripapillary cotton-wool spots were noted.[] Mnemonic for leptospirosis "LEPTOSPIRO " Lymphadenopathy Encephalitis (And meningitis) Pain in abdomen Transmitted through animal urine Occipital headache Suffusion (conjunctival[]

  • Malaria

    These interventions did not restore kidney function, and the animal was euthanized due to irreversible renal failure.[] Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading[] Areas of unusual retinal “whitening” may also be seen and occasional cotton wool spots. 58 Papilloedema is very unusual in adults.[]

  • Polyarteritis Nodosa

    A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss.[] In the posterior pole, this may manifest as hypertensive retinopathy replete with macular star formation, cotton-wool spots, and intraretinal hemorrhage in patients with renal[] Neurologic manifestations resolved with treatment including corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide; however, persistent fevers, rash, and headaches interfered with attempts[]

  • Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

    Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, it can cause jaundice, seizures, coma, or death.[] Areas of unusual retinal “whitening” may also be seen and occasional cotton wool spots. 58 Papilloedema is very unusual in adults.[] He presented with fever (39 C), soreness, headache and vomiting. The blood pressure was 120/80 mmHg. The rest of the examination was normal.[]

  • Vasculitis

    […] urine analysis and/or impaired renal function (glomerular filtration rate of 50% normal for age) Testicular pain or tenderness Signs or symptoms suggesting vasculitis of[] Temporal arteritis is a form of vasculitis that involves the large- and medium-diameter arteries and leads to progressive headache.[] Additional ophthalmic manifestations include isolated cotton-wool spots, cranial-nerve palsies, ocular hypotony, and pupillary abnormalities. 2 To detect these conditions,[]

  • Q Fever

    The most frequent clinical manifestation of acute form is a self-limited febrile illness which is associated with severe headache, muscle ache, arthralgia and cough.[] Cotton wool exudates (white arrows) are seen in the nasal inferior (right bottom) of the papilla and along the temporal vasculature, consistent with an inflammatory disease[] Case 2: A 47-year-old man admitted due to headache after sneezing, with unstable gait and vertigo. A brain tomography showed cerebral venous thrombosis.[]

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