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668 Possible Causes for Abnormal Spikes, Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb, Photoparoxysmal Response

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The most common signs and symptoms in descending order are: asymmetric limb rigidity (100%), upper limb apraxia (91%), gait difficulties (89%), stimulation-sensitive focal[neuroweb.us] Photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) were noted in 18 (95%) patients with BAFME but 1 (10%) with EGTCS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Landau-Kleffner Syndrome and Continuous Spike wave in slow wave sleep: The epileptiform abnormalities seen during sleep EEG in these children is markedly increased compared[epilepsyfoundationmn.org]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    responses (PPRs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We compared the occurrence and involvement of posterior electrodes for focal abnormalities and generalised spike-wave activity in the EEG outside photic stimulation between[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The abnormalities included generalized spike-wave and/or spike-polyspike morphology in majority.[annalsofian.org] PURPOSE: Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    The EEG showed a photoparoxysmal response in over a quarter of the patients, and one in five displayed asymmetrical anomalies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Although focal spikes can occur, if they consistently arise in 1 area, consider structural brain abnormality. Caution. If slow spike-and-wave ( Imaging.[medlink.com] About a third of people with JME may show an abnormal EEG in response to flickering lights (called a photoparoxysmal response).[epilepsy.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    response Behavioral abnormality Nonprogressive Atonic seizures Pica Epileptic spasms EEG with irregular generalized spike and wave complexes Enhancement of the C-reflex Dysphagia[mendelian.co] Abnormal asymmetry in benign epilepsy with unilateral and bilateral centrotemporal spikes: a combined fMRI and DTI study.[frontiersin.org] EEG abnormalities are more likely or increased with sleep deprivation and during sleep.[epilepsy.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Epilepsy

    Berardelli, The Photoparoxysmal Response Reflects Abnormal Early Visuomotor Integration in the Human Motor Cortex, Brain Stimulation, 8, 6, (1151), (2015).[doi.org] (spikes and slow waves); (d) occurrence at any age in childhood and adulthood; (e) frequently demonstrable aetiology (tumor, vascular); and (f) no progressive evolution of[medlink.com] If you have epilepsy, the EEG may show abnormal spikes or waves in your brain's electrical activity patterns. Different types of epilepsy cause different patterns.[northshore.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    VS belongs to various forms of human epilepsies and, as a trait, a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) or VS can be found in generalized or focal, idiopathic, cryptogenic, or symptomatic[epilepsyontario.org] The type of abnormal activity is called ‘spike and wave’ or ‘polyspike and wave’. Children with myoclonic-astatic epilepsy are not usually photosensitive.[epilepsy.org.uk] EEG abnormality is enhanced by sleep deprivation and by sleep. Generalized spike-and-wave often becomes fragmented with sleep deprivation or in sleep.[medlink.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Encephalopathy

    response may occur in barbiturate withdrawal 25. * Practical Guide for Clinical Neurophysiologic Testing: EEG: Thoru Yamada MD. * Basic Principles, Clinical Applications,[slideshare.net] Structural abnormalities can often be seen on cranial MRI.[orpha.net] […] lasts for 2-3 weeks ,alpha became faster to beta frequency range, in sleep sleep spindles increases, acute withdrawal of bz leads to clinical seizures, photomyogenic and photoparoxysmal[slideshare.net]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 8

    With doses of up to 10 g/day, elimination of photoparoxysmal responses was achieved in all 3 patients.[karger.com] .  EEG - slow background with generalised spike and wave.  Epileptiform abnormalities are accentuated during sleep but not with photic stimulation.  The gene associated[slideshare.net] response Negative 6 and 20 Hz provoked a photoparoxysmal response Negative Brain MRI Mild atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem Not available Not available Not available[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Photosensitive Epilepsy

    A flashing strobe light, for example, can trigger a photoparoxysmal response in a predisposed individual.[mdedge.com] The EEG in children with Sunflower Syndrome is abnormal.[epilepsy.com] […] response to intermittent photic stimulation: (1) spikes within the occipital rhythm, (2) parieto-occipital spikes with a biphasic slow wave, (3) parieto-occipital spikes[medscape.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb

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