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5 Possible Causes for Absent Outer Dynein Arms in the Axoneme

  • Tubal Pregnancy

    The outer dynein arm is absent from one doublet for greater than 90% of the axonemal length.[doi.org] Analysis of serial cross-sections of the cilia reveals consistent structural asymmetries within the axoneme.[doi.org]

  • Ectopic Pregnancy

    The outer dynein arm is absent from one doublet for greater than 90% of the axonemal length.[doi.org] Analysis of serial cross-sections of the cilia reveals consistent structural asymmetries within the axoneme.[doi.org]

  • Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia 23

    outer dynein arm structures, towards the base of the outer dynein arm.[jmg.bmj.com] Notably, Hjeij have shown in ARMC4 -deficient cilia that DNAI2 similarly to DNAH5 is present proximally but absent distally from the ciliary axonemes.[jmg.bmj.com] […] putative interaction we detected between ARMC4 and DNAI2 requires further experimental proof, however if true, it would potentially localise ARMC4 close to DNAI2 within the axonemal[jmg.bmj.com]

  • Secondary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    […] or partially absent from the ciliary axoneme.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We have recently shown that in respiratory epithelial cells from PCD patients with outer dynein arm defects the dynein protein DNAH5 is mislocalized and either completely[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Heterotaxia

    The peripherally located monocilia lack lrd and are immotile. 28 The Lrd gene encodes an outer arm axonemal (ciliary) dynein.[nature.com] In the absence of Lrd function (as in inversus viscerum, iv, mouse), node monocilia are completely paralyzed, nodal flow is absent, and L–R determination is randomized. 29[nature.com]

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