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8,318 Possible Causes for activation, by, cell, immune, innate, of, pathway, receptor, response, signaling, surface

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  • Porphyromonas Gingivalis

    Taken together, our results suggest that P. gingivalis has evolved potent mechanisms to modulate its virulence factors and dampen the innate immune response by selectively[] In addition, cell viability of melatonin receptor agonists on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was evaluated by MTT assays.[] OBJECTIVE: EphrinA2-EphA2 and ephrinB2-EphB4 critically engage in bidirectional signalling to modulate alveolar bone remodelling.[] MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental implants with a nanotube surface were fabricated and loaded with doxycycline.[] Here we used Jurkat T-cells to determine the effects of P. gingivalis on T-cell-mediated adaptive immune responses.[] ), IRF5 (TLR signaling) and JUN, MAP2K4, MAPK14 and MAPK8 (MAPK pathway) in SCC-25 cells and IKBKB, IRF5, JUN, MAP2K4, MAPK14 and MAPK8 in PHGK.[] Antimicrobial activity was also observed against P. gingivalis grown on blood agar plates.[] Minor fimbriae (Mfa1) are essential for P. gingivalis cell-cell aggregation.[] Thus, P. gingivalis fimbriae were ineffective in inducing innate immune response in leukocytes; however, they induced β 2 integrin-mediated response by neutrophils.[] In the absence of MyD88, inflammatory TLR2 signaling in P. gingivalis -stimulated neutrophils or macrophages depended upon PI3K.[]

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  • Inflammation

    Abstract The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is an exaggerated abnormal immune response, typically seen in HIV-positive patients following restoration of a normal[] Abstract The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein coupled receptors that recognize a broad range of structurally distinct pathogen and danger-associated molecular[] KEYWORDS: Akt phosphorylation; Inflammation; Macrophage foam cell; TLR4 signaling; mTORC2[] Less than 1 % of all melanomas arise in the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, with purely in situ lesions being exceedingly rare tumors, but with a favorable prognosis[] HIV-specific mechanisms as well as non-specific generalized responses to infection contribute to the chronic and aberrant activation of the immune system.[] These "trained" innate immune cells display altered inflammatory responses upon subsequent pathogen encounter.[] In conclusion, this review identified inflammatory pathway as the key signaling for determining the efficacy of P. notoginseng on chronic diseases.[] Finally, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream S6 kinase (S6K) were detected in CSE-stimulated BECs.[] Tryptases and chymases are the major proteins stored and secreted by mast cells.[] We have examined whether the cell-surface adhesion molecule and hyaluronan receptor CD44 plays a role in resolving lung inflammation.[]

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  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    KEYWORDS: DNA sensing; HSV-1; immune evasion; innate immunity; interferon[] Initially, receptor interaction can mediate cellular adsorption, followed by receptor binding that triggers viral internalization.[] ICP0 and ICP34.5 are among the proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) that modulate type I IFN signaling.[] […] on the cell surface.[] Cellular stress responses to energy insufficiency can impact virus reproduction.[] […] lines did not activate interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) transcription following treatment with the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide 2',3'-cGAMP, suggesting that the STING pathway[] Overall, our findings implicate activated HPSE as a driver of viral pathogenesis and call for further attention to this host protein in infection and other inflammatory disorders[] These data suggest that STING from the EV donor cells contributes to the antiviral responses in cells receiving EVs from HSV-1-infected cells.[] Upon HSV-1 infection, interferons are critical cytokines that regulate immune responses against viral infection.[] However, little is known about the interaction between DNA viruses such as HSV-1 and the MAVS-Pex mediated signaling.[]

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  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    Mice that received immune serum survived without developing latent HSV-1 infection.[] 3/physiology* Toll-Like Receptor 8/physiology* Toll-Like Receptors/biosynthesis Toll-Like Receptors/genetics Substances Interferon Inducers Interferon Regulatory Factors[] STING induction significantly contributed to sustainment of the immune signaling cascade following 5'pppRNA treatment.[] Manifestations other than orolabial or genital herpes are relatively rare, but HSV-1 may initiate infections at other mucosal or cutaneous surfaces.[] Here, studies of the dynamics of the response of PML NB components and IFI16 to invading HSV-1 genomes demonstrated that this response is extremely rapid, occurring within[] Moreover, more than one pathway may be involved in the death of particular cell type.[] Additionally, caspase 7 was found to be activated during HSV-1-dependent apoptosis.[] Though, how PDL-1 blocking at the time of priming affects the quality of CD8 T cell response to acute infections is not well understood and remains controversial.[] Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the antibody RT97 against 200 kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related[] In this review we will focus on the pathways that induce chemokine expression during HSV-1 infection and the implications of chemokine signaling on control of viral replication[]

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  • Treponema Denticola

    (PAMPs) responsible for T. denticola activation of the innate immune system are currently not well defined.[] The completion of several treponeme genome sequences and the characterization of global regulatory systems provide an important starting point in the analysis of signaling[] TDE0471 protects T.denticola from serum killing by preventing the deposition of membrane attack complexes on the bacterial cell surface.[] In this study, we employed T. denticola as a model organism to analyze contact-dependent responses to interactions with species belonging to the same complex (P. gingivalis[] The results suggest that T. denticola activates epithelial cell MAP kinase signal pathways controlling cell proliferation and cell survival.[] With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we[] The addition of glucose to capillary tubes resulted in greater numbers of T. denticola cells in tubes containing glucose.[] AIM(S): To explore the associations between the presence of periodontal pathogens and the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) in the placental tissue of patients[] One of the major virulence factors of this microorganism is its chymotrypsin-like surface protease, dentilisin.[] The aim of the work presented here was to optimize assay conditions and determine steroid substrate specificities for the 5alpha-R activity of T. denticola ATCC 33520.[]

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  • Dengue Virus

    Innate Immunity Evasion by Dengue Virus. Viruses 2012 , 4 , 397-413. Show more citation formats [Return to top][] To our knowledge, we show for the first time that the MØ mannose receptor (MR) binds to all four serotypes of DV and specifically to the envelope glycoprotein.[] Expression of the polymerase domain of NS5 is sufficient to inhibit IFN-alpha signaling.[] […] remaining surface is colored red.[] The innate immune response activates the complement system, a response that helps the antibodies and white blood cells remove the virus.[] Severe dengue virus (DENV) infection is associated with overactivity of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in patient studies.[] Mosquito-cell-derived DVs may have differential infectivity for DC-SIGN-expressing cells.[] receptor.[] For viruses to productively infect their hosts, they must evade or inhibit important elements of the innate immune system, namely the type I interferon (IFN) response, which[] We examined several of these pathways in detail.[]

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  • Interleukin-2

    A delayed or inadequate immune response can lead to prolonged disease, while an excessive or under-regulated response can lead to autoimmunity.[] While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki[] Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling regulates tolerance and immunity.[] Moreover, Apt51 showed good affinity and selectivity for the recognition of CD25 on the cell surface.[] Abstract Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an anti-cancer cytokine that stimulates T cell propagation, triggering innate and adaptive immunity.[] IL-2 receptor activates several different pathways that mediate the flow of mitogenic and survival-promoting signals [2] .[] 0.00001) for NK cells, 11.79 (2.71, 20.86; P 0.01) for CD3 cells, 14.63 (2.62, 26.64; P 0.02) for CD4 cells, and -4.49 (-7.80, 1.18; P 0.008) for CD8 cells.[] Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem computationally inferred pathway (not manually curated)[] It plays a major role in the growth and proliferation of many immune cells such NK and T cells.[] […] resolution of 2.3 angstroms, the binding of IL-2Ralpha to IL-2 stabilizes a secondary binding site for presentation to IL-2Rbeta. gammac is then recruited to the composite surface[]

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  • LIG4 Syndrome

    Ligase-4 Deficiency Causes Distinctive Immune Abnormalities in Asymptomatic Individuals. / Felgentreff, Kerstin; Baxi, Sachin N.; Lee, Yu Nee; Dobbs, Kerry; Henderson, Lauren[] NHEJ is also used to repair the DNA double-strand break intermediates that occur in the production of T and B lymphocyte receptors.[] ATR-Seckel syndrome is caused by mutations in ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR), a component of a DNA damage signalling pathway.[] […] addition, we observed differences in phosphorylation and dephosphorylation kinetics among specific T-cell subpopulations, based on relative expression of CD3 on the cell surface[] However, suffered stimulation from the innate immunity can lead to inflammatory illnesses.[] End joining pathways in CSR in Lig4D patients A number of alternative NHEJ pathways have been proposed in yeast and vertebrates ( 18 ).[] Given the expected severe effect of Dnl4 catalytic mutation on ligase activity and c-NHEJ, it was striking that these same mutants supported residual NHEJ activity in the[] We report here on a case of LIG4 syndrome complicated with distinct EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma.[] Analysis of additional mutational changes in LIG4 syndrome (R580X, R814X and G469E) have led to the identification of a nuclear localization signal in DNA ligase IV and sites[] However, the largest interaction surface in LigIV is formed by the helix-loop-helix clamp, burying 1,990 Å 2 of surface area (see Fig. S1B in the supplemental material).[]

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  • Acute Inflammation

    Provided the antigen is cleared and the immune system of the host is fully functional, the acute inflammatory response will resolve.[] (EPs) and two PGD2 receptors (DPs).[] METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical study, the change of signs and symptoms of acute inflammation of the ocular surface[] CONCLUSION: Aging, not age-related chronic, low-grade inflammation, determines the vascular responses to acute inflammation.[] Although myeloid cell activation is requisite for an optimal innate immune response, this process must be tightly controlled to prevent collateral host tissue damage.[] Resolution of inflammation is an active process, which relies on the production of pro-resolving molecules and activation of intracellular pathways.[] Previous studies on EGC pathophysiology have specifically focused on mucosal glia activation and its contribution to mucosal inflammatory processes observed in the gut of[] […] count, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis and cell cycle.[] Ungoverned activation of innate and adaptive immunity results in acute inflammatory disease, such as bacteria-induced endotoxemia and fulminant hepatitis by virus infection[] […] provide an overview of the process of resolution with a focus on the enzymatic biosynthesis and receptor-dependent actions of resolvins and related proresolving mediators in immunity[]

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  • Glucocorticoid

    Glucocorticoids are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as inflammation.[] However, clinical utility can be compromised by the development of side effects, many of which are attributed to the ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce[] The GR can also mediate rapid nongenomic signaling events initiated in the cytoplasm.[] They demonstrate a differential effect of glucocorticoid hormones on Fc gamma receptor function and on surface receptor protein.[] Research Article Cardiovascular Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics October 2011, 339 (1) 203-209; DOI: Abstract In heart failure, the renal responsiveness[] Leatherland , The interaction between maternal stress and the ontogeny of the innate immune system during teleost embryogenesis: implications for aquaculture practice , Journal[] […] arise from disturbances in these pathways.[] Renal NPR-A activation induces potent diuresis and natriuresis, whereas hypothalamic NPR-A activation inhibits dehydration-induced water intake [4] , [5] .[] In the periphery, a pronounced reduction in T-cell number was seen, demonstrating an effect of endogenous GCs also on T-cell homeostasis.[] INFECTIOUS EVENTS GC therapy is associated with an increased risk of infectious complications, as GCs are known to have suppressive effects upon both innate and acquired immunity[]

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