Create issue ticket

9,851 Possible Causes for activation, by, cell, immune, of, pathway, receptor, response, signaling, surface

  • Influenza Virus

    Obesity impairs the immune response to influenza and influenza vaccination through alterations of the cellular immune system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) is a novel promising target for the treatment of influenza.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an essential pathway in cell cycle control. Dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway during viral infection has been reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Although ocular symptoms in humans caused by avian influenza viruses tend to be relatively mild, these infections are concerning due to the potential of the ocular surface[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] pathway to increase virus growth and enhance the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines to increase pathogenicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Embelin demonstrated antiviral activity, with an IC50 of 0.3 µM and an SI of 10.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] to alveolar epithelial cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Here we demonstrate that transmission reduction is more effective when mice are immunized against A/NP and M2 intranasally than via the intramuscular route.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Methods We calculated the adjusted anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (Adj-AChR-Ab) titers (range, 0-1) in 58 MG patients between 2006 and 2012.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Proteins mapped to amino sugar metabolism, purine metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, transmembrane receptors, phosphatases and transcription regulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Newcastle Disease

    In vivo immunization showed that the chickens immunized with pVAXI-F(o)-C3d6 intramuscularly induced better immune responses than the chickens immunized with the other plasmids[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] receptor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Furthermore, siRNA knockdown or phosphorylation of eIF2α or okadaic acid treatment significantly impaired NDV replication, indicating the critical role of the PKR/eIF2α signaling[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] canine kidney cells, whereas in double tyrosine mutant, it was reduced on both the apical and basolateral surfaces.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oncolysis is believed to be facilitated by a defective Type I interferon (IFN) response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Further, we report that expression of HN protein upregulates the SAPK/JNK pathway leading to transactivation of c-Jun which in turn activates apoptosis signaling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We found that Newcastle disease virus can induce inflammasome activation in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The ability of these cells to deliver the virus to glioma cell lines and GSCs and the effects of NDV-infected MSCs on cell death and on the stemness and self-renewal of GSCs[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Thus, RIP1 is a central signaling protein in regulation of apoptosis and necroptosis during NDV infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Current bioscience has begun to depict more clearly the signalling pathways that are responsible for high-grade glioma initiation, migration, and invasion, opening the door[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Echinococcus Granulosus

    Th9 cells have been reported to contribute to immune responses; however, the role of Th9 cells in Echinococcus granulosus infection is unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The receptor also bound the Echinococcus multilocularis LL.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca(2 )-calmodulin activated serine-threonine protein phosphatase that couples the local or global calcium signals, thus controlling important cellular[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] These procedures revealed a heterogeneous inner surface with both smooth and irregular areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A peculiar feature of chronic CE is the coexistence of Th1 and Th2 responses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In this study, we investigated AgB interactions with different mammalian cell types and the pathways involved in its internalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Host cells can interact both with the LL surface and with materials that are shed from it to allow parasite growth.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Our results indicate that the laminated layer protects E. granulosus against the NOS2 protective response through Arginase pathway, a hallmark of M2 macrophages.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The local immune responses to chronic echinococcal infections in various organs are largely unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Competition binding assays with plasma lipoproteins and ligands for lipoprotein receptors were performed to gain information about the putative EgAgB receptor(s) in these[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Ehrlichia Chaffeensis

    Antibodies are not generally effective during such intracellular infections, so we would like to understand exactly how antibodies can mediate immunity in this model.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A luciferase reporter assay using HEK293 cells, which lack Toll-like receptors (TLRs), showed activation of both the IL-8 promoter and NF-κB by E. chaffeensis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In this study, we investigated the effects of c-di-GMP signaling on E. chaffeensis infection of the human monocytic cell line THP-1.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Additional E. chaffeensis surface proteins detected were OMP85, hypothetical protein ECH_0525 (here named Esp73), immunodominant surface protein gp47, and 11 other proteins[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] This is the first demonstration of lipoprotein expression and elicitation of immune responses by a member of the order Rickettsiales.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] group ring finger protein 5 (PCGF5) to the inclusion, indicating that the SUMO pathway is critical for intracellular survival.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We investigated the extent of protein aggregation in E. chaffeensis during infection of canine macrophage cell line, DH82.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Microbial ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of mononuclear phagocytes, thus activating transcription factors including NF-kappa[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] First, E. chaffeensis avoided stimulation of or repressed the transcription of cytokines involved in the early innate immune response and cell-mediated immune response to[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Echinococcus Multilocularis

    Immunomodulation of host immunity toward anergy seems to be triggered by parasite metabolites.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] a BR-Smad, also by the human TGF-β type I receptor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] This involves direct interactions of evolutionary conserved signalling systems of the receptor tyrosine--and the receptor serine/threonine-kinase pathways of the parasite[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes, the surface-associated and highly glycosylated laminated layer, and molecules associated with this structure, is believed to be[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The response declined along with worm degeneration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Furthermore, our data show that Echinococcus insulin signalling pathways are promising targets for the development of novel drugs.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] To explore the effect of Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and on liver cell[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] of small numbers of small interfering RNA-transfected cells in vitro over an extended period of time.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A series of evolutionarily conserved signalling molecules of the insulin, epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta pathways that are able to functionally[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Upon heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, purified EmMPK2 showed prominent autophosphorylation activity and strongly elevated basal activity towards a MAPK substrate[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Keloid

    The purpose of this study was to examine extracellular matrix composition, vascularization, and immune cell population of skin sites prone to keloid formation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The activities of vitamin D are dependent on the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Results from tumor models also validated that wnt10a/β-catenin signaling pathway influenced the activity and length of telomerase.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] HtrA1 may promote keloid development by accelerating cell proliferation and remodelling keloid-specific extracellular matrix or cell surface molecules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The key factor responsible for the disease process has not been identified.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The intracellular TGF-β/Smad and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways is blocked by sorafenib.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Smad7 is a negative feedback regulator that prevents activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Sulforaphane induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest with the induction of p21 in KF112 cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been shown to play important roles in the progression of tissue fibrosis; therefore, both these[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Activation in keloid tissue is affected not only by fibroblasts but also by epithelial cells and immune cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Brucella Abortus

    Innate immunity serves as the first line of defense against infectious agents such as intracellular bacteria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are some of the major compounds that play important roles in modulating the innate immunity and acquired immunity in host after infection[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In addition, mouse serum does not opsonize Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, a bacterium displaying the same surface polysaccharide antigen as smooth B. abortus Therefore, the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Such proinflammatory response was not modified by the absence of the Brucella TIR domain-containing proteins BtpA and BtpB.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] However, the implications of bacterial virulence or replicative capacity and the signaling pathways remained unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Herein, we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] To date, the identity of the Brucella sensor kinase(s) that function to perceive stress and directly activate GSR signalling have remained undefined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 serologically cross-react in the immune response with the host; therefore, our aim was to compare the immune responses[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The present study demonstrates that Brucella abortus infection induces the activation of the autophagic pathway in hepatic stellate cells to create a microenvironment that[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Fusobacterium Nucleatum

    Concerning the association between the gut microbiome and immunity, F. nucleatum has been shown to expand myeloid-derived immune cells, which inhibit T-cell proliferation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] , independent of surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] This study revealed for the first time that periodontal bacterium is capable of co-opting eATP, a host danger signaling molecule to detach from biofilms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] the protein components on the Fusobaterium cell surface.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Vascular response is an essential aspect of an effective immune response to periodontal disease pathogens, as new blood vessel formation contributes to wound healing and inflammation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The prevalence of invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) within the serrated neoplasia pathway of the proximal colon has seldom been investigated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Bacterial invasion was found to be necessary for F. nucleatum-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Our data support that this F. nucleatum-mediated inhibition is mediated by human, but not by mouse TIGIT, an inhibitory receptor present on all human NK cells and on various[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Our data suggest that invasive Fn activates β-catenin signaling via a TLR4/P-PAK1/P-β-catenin S675 cascade in CRC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] TEM analyses revealed a decrease in the outer membrane surface corrugations and roughness of the strain AHN 9508 with increasing HNP-1 concentrations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Pasteurella Multocida

    Apart from this, PMT acts as a strong mitogen, protects from apoptosis and has an impact on the differentiation and function of immune cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Previous studies have implicated gangliosides as the host receptors for PMT binding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The capsule and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida constitute the major components of the bacterial cell surface.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] At 28 days post immunization, cell-mediated immunity responses were determined.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PMT affects several signal transduction pathways related to cancer by constitutively stimulating heterotrimeric G proteins.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The amount of endogenous substrate levels modified by PMT in cells pretreated with auranofin was reduced compared to cells treated with PMT alone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] This review summarises the knowledge of effects of P. multocida virulence factors on the host's immune system.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PMT-DTa effects were competed by PMT, indicating binding to the same cell surface receptor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] that in a large number of bacteria the main path for carbohydrate oxidation is the pentose phosphate cycle or other metabolic sequences not involving the Embden–Meyerhof pathway[nature.com] Interestingly, endogenous SOCS-1 production after Toll-like receptor activation also causes STAT3 hyperactivation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of
  • Ewing Family of Tumors

    Hopefully either immune modulation against this unique protein or further knowledge of how to use antisense genes will move us toward exquisitely targeted therapy in the Ewing[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In case of repression of TGF-β receptor type 2, the survival benefit of the tumor cell rests on the avoidance of programmed cell death.[symptoma.com] ) nuclear translocation of p-p70S6K, p-ERK 1/2, and p-NF-kappaB p65; and (c) correlative expression of Ki-67 and Skp2 proteins consistent with cell cycling consequent to signal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A significant predictor of response was existence of a non-pelvic primary tumor (P 0.04).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The aim of this study was to determine telomerase activity (TA) as a prognostic factor at diagnosis and as a marker for minimal residual disease during therapy and follow-up[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Precise diagnosis of small-round-cell tumors is often a challenge to the pathologist and the clinical oncologist.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In wild-type p16 cell lines, pRB expression was lost in one case.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In vitro, as well as the first in vivo, experimental evidence suggests that tumor cell expansion and spread can be counteracted by breaking these physiological pathways.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo a form of cell death termed anoikis after they lose contact with the extracellular matrix or neighboring cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Molecular techniques used to identify this translocation along with the knowledge that the protein product of the MIC2 gene is highly expressed on the cell surface have greatly[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: by of

Similar symptoms