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130 Possible Causes for Agitated Delirium, Catatonia

  • Bipolar Disorder

    It is typical for dementia or delirium to be associated with nighttime agitation and confusion in patients ("sundowning").[web.archive.org] Bipolar disorder (BD) has been linked with the manifestation of catatonia in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Bipolarity in the modern sense could not have emerged until it became possible to identify mood disorders without delirium or intellectual disorders; in other words, it required[web.archive.org]

  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Muscular rigidity Sweating High fever Instability of the autonomic nervous system Unstable blood pressure Changes in cognition Agitation Delirium Coma Neuroleptic Malignant[schmidtlaw.com] However, exact psychopathological and pathophysiological characterization of both NMS and catatonia remains unclear.Clinically, catatonia and NMS show more or less similar[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] delirium, and may progress to lethargy or unresponsiveness (reflecting encephalopathy).[msdmanuals.com]

  • Acute Amphetamine Intoxication

    Patients with evidence of end-organ damage, focal neurological deficits, arrhythmias, delirium, or uncontrolled agitation should be admitted for observation.[clinicaladvisor.com] Chronic amphetamine intoxication with catatonia has been reported in Japan, but acute amphetamine intoxication with catatonia has never been reported in the literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Hypertension Acute Coronary Syndrome Seizures and Agitated Delirium Hyperthermia Hyponatraemia Question 2 Resus: What is the mechanism for the ACS and thus why do we avoid[lifeinthefastlane.com]

  • Alcohol Withdrawal

    A significant number of patients with terminal cancer experience terminal restlessness or an agitated delirium in the final days of life.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by alterations in motor behavior, vigilance, thought and mood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Low-risk patients with no history of agitated delirium or risk factors receive lorazepam PRN triggered by CIWA scores.[todayshospitalist.com]

  • Hyponatremia

    Catatonia associated with hyponatremia treated with electroconvulsive therapy. J ECT 2012;28:e33-4. 167. Brent RH, Chodroff C.[jgmh.org] […] it improves the symptoms of polydipsia, so clozapine is postulated as a therapeutic option [ 37 ], especially as an alternative to electroconvulsive therapy in cases of catatonia[intechopen.com] […] the release of ADH and thereby causing SIADH by some authors in the past. [163-165] However, there have been recent case reports of successful use of ECT in a patient with catatonia[jgmh.org]

  • Overdose

    Some general symptoms associated with various overdose states include severe chest pain, seizures, severe headaches, difficulty breathing, delirium, extreme agitation, or[americanaddictioncenters.org] At this point, the patient developed new slurred speech and later catatonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Common Symptoms Sleepiness Nausea or vomiting Dizziness Fever Confusion Rapid heartbeat Agitation Shakiness Severe Symptoms Fainting Heart problems Changes in blood pressure[verywell.com]

  • Amphetamine Delusional Disorder

    Symptoms of delirium tremens include: Agitation/excitement Irritability Confusion/disorientation Delirium Sudden mood changes Fatigue or stupor Restlessness Body tremors Changes[americanaddictioncenters.org] Delusions, Aggression, Arrhythmia, dilated pupils, Diarrhea, Hypertension, Hypermedia, Nausea, Rapid breathing, Restlessness, Tremors, Vomiting And in rare cases; Seizures and Catatonia[socratic.org] Catatonia : Only in extreme cases will a person appear catatonic, unable to move and stuck in a rigid stupor.[mentalhealthdaily.com]

  • Hypoxia

    We report a case of malignant catatonia in a patient diagnosed with DPHL that was refractory to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and review the literature on catatonia in DPHL[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Review of literature reveals rare success with GABAergic agents for catatonia after cerebral hypoxia and no cases successfully treated with ECT.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The patient was a 56-year-old woman with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted with catatonia 2 weeks after hospitalization for drug overdose and respiratory failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Postictal State

    We review risk factors for postictal delirium and psychosis and management of agitated and confused behaviors in patients after seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Although several reports have been made of NCSE simulating catatonia, there are no published cases of catatonia mimicking NCSE.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] There may also be an emotional component characterized by feelings of embarrassment, anxiety, frustration, sadness, agitation, and confusion.[verywell.com]

  • Pernicious Anemia

    We report a case of autoimmune B12 deficiency presenting as catatonia without signs of anemia or macrocytosis, in which a correlation was found between the patient's B12 blood[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Catatonia is not schizophrenia: Kraepelin's error and the need to recognize catatonia as an independent syndrome in medical nomenclature.[bjp.rcpsych.org] Catatonia vis-à-vis delirium: the significance of recognizing catatonia in altered mental status . General Hospital Psychiatry, Vol. 37, Issue. 6, p. 554.[bjp.rcpsych.org]

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