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311 Possible Causes for Agitation, Bicarbonate Decreased

  • Hyperventilation

    […] via a decrease in bicarbonate reabsorption.[emedicine.medscape.com] It is accompanied by agitation and a sense of terror or by symptoms of chest pain, paresthesias (peripheral and perioral), peripheral tetany (eg, stiffness of fingers or arms[msdmanuals.com] […] or outright panic attacks. [1] Excessively rapid breathing creates low levels of carbon dioxide in your blood, which can lead to dizziness, fainting, weakness, confusion, agitation[wikihow.com]

  • Acute Hyperventilation

    This decline in U-B PCO2 with acute hyperventilation could not be attributed to changes in urine flow, phosphate, or bicarbonate excretion, suggesting, therefore, a decrease[jci.org] Patients with acute hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) may present with agitation and anxiety.[emedicine.medscape.com] […] res'pir-ă-tōr-ē al'kă-lō'sis ) Alkalosis resulting from an abnormal loss of CO 2 produced by hyperventilation, either active or passive, with concomitant reduction in arterial bicarbonate[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

  • Hyponatremia

    15% to 20%, hyperchloremic acidosis, decreased serum bicarbonate level, potassium abnormalities (type dependent) Correct acidosis, sodium bicarbonate Salt-wasting nephropathies[aafp.org] On admission, the patient was agitated and had slurred speech. Treatment with hypertonic saline lead to full recovery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] He was evaluated at a community hospital emergency department and given lorazepam due to agitation and combativeness before discharge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Psychogenic Hyperventilation

    Compensation: Metabolic side compensates for respiratory acidosis by decreasing renal chloride excretion, leading to decreased strong-ion difference and decreased bicarbonate[clinicaladvisor.com] Dependence in Activities of Daily Living ADLs Inability to Initiate Meaningful Activities Anxiety Spatial Disorientation Rejection of Care Food Refusal Insomnia Apathy and Agitation[books.google.com] Clinical History Patients with acute hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) may present with great agitation and anxiety.[unp.me]

  • Nephrolithiasis

    Inhibition of the type II isoenzyme of carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary process results in decreased bicarbonate production with a concurrent decrease in sodium and fluid[jamanetwork.com] The patients are usually restless and agitated.[lecturio.com] Hypokalemia and decreased serum bicarbonate level suggest underlying distal (type 1) renal tubular acidosis, which is associated with formation of calcium phosphate stones[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Hypotension

    Ab Decreased cardiac contractility Beta blockers Glucagon Calcium channel blockers Calcium Tricyclic antidepressants Sodium bicarbonate Sympatholytic agents alpha-2 adrenergic[calpoison.org] BACKGROUND: Expert consensus panels have recommended risperidone as first-line treatment for agitation of psychiatric origin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison control record are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    […] to between 7.25 and 7.30 (normal 7.35–7.45); serum bicarbonate decreased to 15–18 mmol/l (normal above 20); the person is alert Moderate: pH 7.00–7.25, bicarbonate 10–15,[en.wikipedia.org] This may be subtle and include agitation, confusion and delirium. An early warning of cerebral edema is a progressive rise in pCO2 if pH fails to increase.[clinicaladvisor.com] At physiological pH, these 2 ketoacids dissociate completely, and the excess hydrogen ions bind the bicarbonate, resulting in decreased serum bicarbonate levels.[cmaj.ca]

  • Acute Pancreatitis

    Ethanol increases the protein content of pancreatic juice and decreases bicarbonate levels and trypsin inhibitor concentrations.[emedicine.com]

  • Amphetamine Delusional Disorder

    ., sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate [Tums ]), acetazolamide Increase side effects: Atomoxetine (Strattera ), caffeine, phenylephrine, fluoxetine (Prozac ), bupropion[nami.org] Toxicity is managed with supportive care, including IV benzodiazepines (for agitation, hypertension, and seizures) and cooling techniques (for hyperthermia).[msdmanuals.com] The results of these two studies show that agitation and some psychotic symptoms may be abated within an hour after antipsychotic injection.[cochrane.org]

  • Tricyclic Antidepressant Overdose

    Apparently, this somehow "decreases sodium channel blockade by voltage-dependent drug-binding changes ".[derangedphysiology.com] 4% of cases approx) CNS Ataxia Nystagmus Sedation, coma Seizures (about 5% of cases) Amblyopia Anticholinergic Mydriasis Dry mouth Absent bowel sounds Urinary retention Agitation[emed.ie] Initial or mild symptoms typically develop within 2 hours and include tachycardia, drowsiness, a dry mouth, nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, confusion, agitation, and[en.wikipedia.org]

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