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16 Possible Causes for Agonal Respiration, Fixed Pupils

  • Brain Death

    Patients who aren't apneic may present with shallow, irregular, gasping breathing known as agonal respirations.[] A 28-year-old man was admitted following a road traffic accident with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3/15 and fixed pupils.[] Reflexes include pupillary response (fixed pupils), oculocephalic reflex , corneal reflex , no response to the caloric reflex test , and no spontaneous respirations .[]

  • Ventricular Fibrillation

    ACLS Algorithm Cardiopulmonary resuscitation For an adult who is unresponsive, pulseless, and not breathing (or has only agonal respirations), activate the emergency response[]

  • Brain Stem Herniation

    The result is usually fatal. [9] Other symptoms of this type of herniation include small, fixed pupils with [10] paralysis of upward eye movement giving the characteristic[] Hyperventilation or Cheyne-Stokes Absent (eyes fixed) Decerebrate posturing, or nothing Lower pons and medilla Both pupils fixed and unreactive Apnoea Absent (eyes fixed)[] […] travelling to the pupil; thus the pupils are midposition (medium size) and fixed (no light reflex in either pupil). 4.[]

  • Cardiac Arrest

    After intravenous fluids, morphine, antibiotics, and 2 doses of ondansetron, the patient became unresponsive with agonal respirations and a wide complex tachycardia consistent[] He was resuscitated and his circulation returned spontaneously after approximately 11min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but he was unresponsive and had fixed dilated pupils[] The rate of bystander CPR did not differ according to the incidence of agonal respirations ( Table 1 ).[]

  • Traumatic Pneumocephalus

    The initial assessment was significant for a blood pressure at 104/72 mm Hg, heart rate at 124 beats per minute, decreased breath sounds in the left chest with agonal respirations[] Pupils that are fixed and dilated usually indicate an irreversible injury.[] A unilateral fixed (unresponsive) and dilated pupil has many potential causes.[]

  • Respiratory Muscle Paralysis

    At first the patient may become unresponsive to light with sluggishly reactive pupils which can rapidly progress to dilated or fixed pupils, usually the result of para sympatholytic[]

  • Jugular Venous Distention

    See also what Agonal Respirations , Seizures , and Cardiac Arrest and CPR look like Jugular vein distention or JVD (alternately JVP — jugular vein pressure or jugular vein[] Brainstem herniation - seen in severe acute hyponatraemia; signs include coma; fixed, unilateral, dilated pupil; decorticate or decerebrate posturing; respiratory arrest.[]

  • Asphyxia

    .• Pupils may be dilated, fixed, or poorly reactive to light. 25.[]

  • Cerebral Hemorrhage

    For example, suspected cerebral herniation characterized by posturing and a fixed, dilated (blown) pupil may be a key indicator that hyperventilation should be considered.[]

  • Drowning

    Patients who are comatose, those receiving CPR at presentation to the emergency department (ED), or those who have fixed and dilated pupils and no spontaneous respirations[]

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