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17 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Apathy, Nocturnal Leg Cramp

  • Hypoglycemia

    Feeling of numbness, pins and needles (paresthesia) Negativism, irritability, belligerence, combativeness, rage Personality change, emotional lability Fatigue, weakness, apathy[en.wikipedia.org] A hyperglycemic patient with an altered mental status may receive a bolus of glucose.[emedicine.com] A 38-year-old man was admitted with altered mental status and bradycardia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Chronic Kidney Insufficiency

    mental status (encephalopathy from the accumulation of waste products or uremic poisons), and restless legs syndrome; chest pain due to pericarditis (inflammation around[emedicinehealth.com] […] and pale skin (from anemia); shortness of breath from fluid accumulation in the lungs; headaches, numbness in the feet or hands (peripheral neuropathy), disturbed sleep, altered[emedicinehealth.com]

  • Graves Disease

    […] measurement of vitals is rate of percieved exertion. [4] Percautions/Symptoms related to hypothyroidism (if patient on medication or post surgical) [4] Excessive fatigue and apathy[physio-pedia.com]

  • Pernicious Anemia

    Catatonia vis-à-vis delirium: the significance of recognizing catatonia in altered mental status . General Hospital Psychiatry, Vol. 37, Issue. 6, p. 554.[bjp.rcpsych.org]

  • Insulinoma

    Neuroglycopenic symptoms include dizziness, confusion, apathy, amnesia, personality and behavioral changes, visual disturbances, seizure, and coma. 2 The diagnosis of insulinoma[journals.lww.com] A rare case of hypoglycaemia due to insulinoma in an adolescent with acutely altered mental status. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27:773–6.[ijpeonline.biomedcentral.com] Even if their altered mental status is more pronounced, other diagnoses such as substance abuse, trauma, or epilepsy may be deemed more likely [ 10, 11 ].[ijpeonline.biomedcentral.com]

  • Hypocalcemia

    […] hemolysis Inadequate Potassium Excretion - from decreased aldosterone related to Adrenalectomy or Addison’s disease Signs of Hyperkalemia - High Potassium Diarrhea LOC Changes -Apathy[web.archive.org] Hypercalcemia: Typical findings in hypercalcemia can include: -Poor feeding -Vomiting -Constipation -Abdominal Pain -Hypertension -Altered mental status In more severe cases[clinicaladvisor.com] mental status, and hypocalcemia. 3 Tetany, which may be mistaken for motor seizures, results from spontaneous action potentials originating in peripheral nerves when the[epilepsy.com]

  • Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    In AD patients, depression was significantly associated with premorbid neuroticism, and agitation, apathy, and irritability with premorbid agreeableness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Sleep disorders including rapid eye movement sleep disorder, restless legs syndrome, nocturnal cramps. Fainting spells.[patient.info] […] which is reportedly caused by several factors including level of independence in instrumental activities of daily living, whether the patient is living with the caregiver, apathy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Hyperthyroidism

    Table 1 Psychiatric symptoms seen with hyperthyroidism Anxiety Apathy (more often seen in older patients) Cognitive impairment Delirium Depression Emotional lability Fatigue[mdedge.com] Thyroid storm should be considered in the differential of any patient presenting with altered mental status.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Thyroid storm is the most severe form of thyrotoxicosis, hallmarked by altered sensorium, and, if untreated, is associated with significant mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    These patients and their carer/spouse were asked to report any history of abulia-apathy, hallucination, personality change and other variety of symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] FDA bans quinine for nocturnal leg cramps. Drug Utilization Rev. 1995; Oct:150. 26. Moss AH, Casey P, Stocking CB, Roos RP, Brooks BR, Siegler M.[aafp.org] Paramedics bring a 26-year-old man to the ED with acute-onset altered mental status. He has a history of back pain. An open, unlabeled pillbox was found.[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Lyme Meningoencephalitis

    Symptoms of postencephalistic syndrome may include : A general malaise or sense of apathy Irritability, irritation Learning difficulties and struggling to hold the scholar[braininjury-explanation.com] […] sinus stuffiness: Painful weak grip that may let go:, Thumb pain and tingling numbness, Weak ankles: Lax, pendulous abdomen, Upper/lower leg cramps, Tight Achilles tendons[lyme-symptoms.com] Patients may also present with neurological deficits, altered mental status, and seizures, indicating increased intracranial pressure (ICP).[amboss.com]