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45 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Confusion, Prominent Sulci

  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    There was complete resolution of cerebral edema in all patients and mild interval prominence of the cerebral sulci, which can indicate cerebral volume loss, in three out of[bloodjournal.org] The patient was initially presented with a 4-day history of confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] His altered mental status, however, resolved with control of blood pressure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[academic.oup.com] Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] An extensive laboratory workup for the etiology of his altered mental status was unremarkable, except for a mildly elevated white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid[mdedge.com]

  • Hypoxia

    Grossly, the lesion was marked by preserved gyral crests and involved sulci, resulting in prominent, mushroom-shaped gyri.[emedicine.medscape.com] Severe symptoms include: The inability to communicate Confusion Possible coma or death Other associated symptoms also may be present.[medicinenet.com] […] sharp, genein, to produce inadequate oxygen tension at the cellular level, characterized by tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

  • AIDS-associated Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[cid.oxfordjournals.org] Rapid neurologic decline (hemiplegia, visual field defects, ataxia, aphasia) HIV Encephalopathy Progressive memory loss, depression, movement disorders CMV encephalitis Confusion[learningradiology.com] Altered mental status is rare and if present should increase suspicion for acute purulent meningitis or encephalitis.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

  • Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

    She was mildly confused, with left-sided hyperreflexia, a wide-based gait, and intention tremor in her left upper limb.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] B, Corresponding FLAIR image shows marked prominence of ventricles and sulci for the patient’s age.[ajnr.org] .— Acute cerebellitis is a clinically defined condition most commonly characterized by acute cerebellar ataxia, associated with nausea, headache, and altered mental status[doi.org]

  • Postictal State

    Ventricles, sulci and cisterns were mildly prominent for age and there was mild cerebral cortical volume loss.[annals-general-psychiatry.biomedcentral.com] Confusion or apparent sleepwalking, for example, could be a postictal phenomenon or could be an independent parasomnia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] If a patient remains confused for longer than 20 minutes after a seizure, consider another cause of altered mental status [4].[ems1.com]

  • Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    The following day, the patient returned to the emergency department by ambulance with fever, confusion, agitation, and a severe headache, for which he was admitted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] CT head showed prominent sulci suggestive of cerebral atrophy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We describe two children, aged four and 14 years, who both presented with seizures and altered mental status after recent fresh water swimming exposures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    They can range from hyperintensities in the parietal and occipital region, brain stem lesions, and marked atrophy, causing prominence of sulci.[cureus.com] SSPE should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis which has a similar cause but very different timing and course.[en.wikipedia.org] mental status.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • West Nile Encephalitis

    Arrows indicate subtle enhancement in the sulci. B and C, FLAIR images show increased signal intensity in the sulci, more prominent on the left than on the right.[ajnr.org] Your child is confused or cannot think clearly.[myhealth.alberta.ca] We report the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with fever, altered mental status, and maculopapular rash, who was diagnosed with locally acquired WNV encephalitis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Candida Meningitis

    […] in modelling of lateral ventricles, slight deviation of middle line to the right side and reduction of sulci dimensions ( A: T2 flair).[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com] Candida albicans infection confused with tuberculosis. Arch Pathol 1943 ; 35 : 427 – 437. 2. Eschwege, J. Generalized moniliasis with localization in the brain.[cambridge.org] Prognosis Cryptococcal meningitis The most important markers of poor prognosis in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis are altered mental status at presentation and high[online.epocrates.com]

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