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91 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Encephalomalacia, Headache

  • Stroke

    In contrast, DWI remains elevated due to persistent high T2/FLAIR signal ( T2 shine through ), unless hemorrhage ( T2 blackout ) or cystic encephalomalacia 10.[radiopaedia.org] RESULTS: We report on two patients who presented with headache and mild hypertension after 4-FA use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The common chameleons were initially diagnosed as altered mental status (AMS) (29, 31%), syncope (15, 16%), hypertensive emergency (12, 13%), systemic infection (10, 11%),[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    The headache preceding an intracranial aneurysm rupture is called a sentinel headache (SH), and it is characterized by a sudden, intense, and persistent headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] This case report describes a 48-year old female who presented with altered mental status, lower extremity weakness, low back pain and a recent history of subjective fevers[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In Part 1 of this episode on Headache Pearls & Pitfalls – Migraine Headache & Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Dr. Anil Chopra and Dr.[emergencymedicinecases.com]

  • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Abstract We report a female patient presenting with headache, fatigue, ecchymoses and recent, excessive vaginal bleeding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] mental status, and acute kidney injury.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Patients may report headache, changes in vision, fever, dyspnea, and encephalopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Decompression Sickness

    A 33-yr-old man came to the emergency department with the chief complaint of a severe headache and decreased sensation in his right hand following a deep dive on scuba.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] He was transferred to a local Emergency Department and noted to have altered mental status, asymmetric motor deficits, and non-dermatomal paresthesias of the upper and lower[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Symptoms and Signs Symptoms occur within a few minutes of surfacing and may include altered mental status, hemiparesis, focal motor or sensory deficits, seizures, loss of[merck.com]

  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    The question frequently arises whether the neurological symptoms are caused by cerebral hemorrhages as a result of rupture of diseased vessels, encephalomalacias from thrombosis[annals.org] Three patients are described who experienced headache from hypertension: one had acute headache from acute hypertension, one had daily, morning headaches from chronic hypertension[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] His altered mental status, however, resolved with control of blood pressure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Transient Ischemic Attack

    […] transient ischemic (TIA) 435.9 Claudication, intermittent 443.9 cerebral (artery) (see also Ischemia, cerebral, transient) 435.9 Deficit Disease, diseased - see also Syndrome Encephalomalacia[icd9data.com] Our patient presented with thunderclap headache and transient ischemic attack like episode with obvious SAH on CT scan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] These include, but are not limited to: Laboratory tests should focus on ruling out metabolic conditions that may mimic TIA (e.g. hypoglycemia causing altered mental status[en.wikipedia.org]

  • Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Grade IV: multicystic encephalomalacia (18.05%), porencephaly (21.66%), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (58.33%).[medichub.ro] Thereafter, her mental status markedly improved and her headache resolved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The woman's altered mental status fully abated, and she was discharged with minimal neurologic deficits. The newborn was born healthy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Cerebral Embolism

    […] see also Embolism, brain) 434.1 intracranial (see also Embolism, brain) 434.1 meninges (see also Embolism, brain) 434.1 vessels of brain (see also Embolism, brain) 434.1 Encephalomalacia[icd9data.com] A cerebral embolism increases the risk for an embolic stroke and causes symptoms such as sudden confusion and severe headache, according to the University of Washington Medicine[reference.com] Cerebral manifestations of fat embolism syndrome can be highly variable and non-specific: the symptoms spectrum includes headache, lethargy, irritability, delirium, stupor[radiopaedia.org]

  • Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the patient’s brain showed an area of encephalomalacia in keeping with her previous surgery.[mja.com.au] A previously healthy 34-year-old Korean female presented with fever, myalgia and severe headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Patients with HSE typically present with a prodrome of headaches and fever, followed by sudden focal neurological deficits and altered mental status.[amboss.com]

  • Susac Syndrome

    MR imaging performed 9 months later demonstrated resolution of the enhancing and high T2 signal intensity anomalies and a small area of encephalomalacia from biopsy.[ajnr.org] Headache is estimated to affect up to 80% of Susac syndrome patients, but the relevance of headache characteristics and profile is not yet clear.[mdpi.com] The migraine headaches respond to triptans and Topamax.[web.archive.org]

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