Create issue ticket

41 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Hypersalivation, Myoclonic Jerking

  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    We describe a well-documented case of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status and who had focal cranial lesions that[] A 50-year-old man was admitted in midwinter with fever, altered mental status and new onset generalised tonic-clonic seizure with urinary incontinence.[] Eastern equine encephalitis Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms high fever, muscle pain, altered mental status, headache, meningeal irritation, photophobia, and seizures[]

  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    He developed marked rigidity, myoclonic jerks, and startle myoclonus. He was then sent for a brain MRI.[] […] the patient presented with a deterioration of his general health which had gradually taken hold, with altered consciousness accompanied by generalised muscle rigidity and hypersalivation[] Symptoms of hyperthermia, altered mental status, dyskinesia, and autonomic instability (hypertension and tachycardia) coincided with promethazine administration, with rapid[]

  • Generalized Motor Seizure

    Myoclonic jerks. Increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Diaphragmatic muscles go into spasm.[] […] rhythmic muscle twitching) Bladder or bowel incontinence Tongue bite lacerations Unresponsiveness Confusion Amnesia Aphasia Fatigue Muscular flaccidity and muscle pain Headache Hypersalivation[] By definition, other types of generalized seizure such as absences or myoclonic jerks (characteristic mainly of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) are not part of this syndrome,[]

  • Dementia

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus is being increasingly recognized as a cause of altered mental status in ICU patients.[] It prompts health professionals to look for several symptoms: a sudden change in mental status; difficulty focusing during conversation; rambling, disorganized, or illogical[] Category Examples Neurologic causes Cerebrovascular disorders Hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, transient ischemia attack Migraine Confusional migraine (migraine that alters[]

  • Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    He developed hypersalivation, speech and swallowing difficulties within 30days.[] Patients with HSE typically present with a prodrome of headaches and fever, followed by sudden focal neurological deficits and altered mental status.[] mental status.[]

  • Insulinoma

    […] glucose in the blood into the cells of the body, causing a dangerously low blood glucose level known as hypoglycemia and can result in one or more of the following symptoms: Hypersalivation[] A rare case of hypoglycaemia due to insulinoma in an adolescent with acutely altered mental status. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;27:773–6.[] Even if their altered mental status is more pronounced, other diagnoses such as substance abuse, trauma, or epilepsy may be deemed more likely [ 10, 11 ].[]

  • Cholinergic Crisis

    jerking See Clinical Presentation for more detail.[] Features suggestive of a cholinergic crisis (too much medication) include muscle fasciculation, pallor, sweating, hypersalivation and small pupils.[] Altered mental status and coma, with a score of eight on the Glasgow Coma Scale, are also common.[]

  • Rabies

    Child continues to have persistent myoclonic jerks, seizures, is dependent on all activities with severe neurological deficits.[] The diagnosis is easy when a non-immunised patient presents with hydrophobia and hypersalivation after a bite by a known rabid animal but more difficult when a patient presents[] He was subsequently admitted to another hospital with altered mental status requiring intubation.[]

  • Pellagra

    jerks with bizarre involuntary movements, in addition to total external ophthalmoplegia and gait disturbance.[] In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures. Wernicke encephalopathy and alcohol withdrawal were suspected.[] Upon arrival he had hypothermia, a diffuse rash and altered mental status. During ED evaluation, a urinary catheter was placed and demonstrated black urine.[]

  • Postictal State

    Thus, myoclonic jerks occurring in the context of typical absence seizures do not worsen the prognosis. [4] Other distinct absence syndromes with a prominent myoclonic component[] […] rhythmic muscle twitching) Bladder or bowel incontinence Tongue bite lacerations Unresponsiveness Confusion Amnesia Aphasia Fatigue Muscular flaccidity and muscle pain Headache Hypersalivation[] If a patient remains confused for longer than 20 minutes after a seizure, consider another cause of altered mental status [4].[]