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751 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Hyponatremia

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  • Upper Respiratory Infection

    Signs of increased intracranial pressure (eg, papilledema, altered mental status, neurologic findings) may suggest intracranial involvement.[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Pneumonia

    Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) can also be a complication of bacterial pneumonia. Children are prone to this.[nationaljewish.org] Consider pneumonia as a differential diagnosis in elderly patients with vague complaints, such as altered mental status.[ems1.com]

  • Meningitis

    Patients with hyponatremia were categorized into CSW and other causes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The most common symptoms of meningitis are fever, headache, neck stiffness and altered mental status.[symptoma.com] […] is common in bacterial meningitis. [43] The cause of hyponatremia, however, is controversial and may include dehydration, the inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic[en.wikipedia.org]

  • Adrenal Insufficiency

    A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of Cushing's syndrome developed hyponatremia with symptoms of acute glucocorticoid deficiency, such as prolonged general fatigue[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Altered mental status may occur at any age.[clinicaladvisor.com] Following the diagnostic algorithm of hyponatremia we reached the diagnosis of AI.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Legionnaires' Disease

    […] causal pathway to hyponatremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] A 53-year-old Japanese male visited our hospital with symptoms of fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and altered mental status, but not with respiratory manifestations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] mental status, and nonfocal neurologic examination findings Gastrointestinal symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting Multiple organ failure Coma Bacteremia or abscess formation (in[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Bacterial Meningitis

    Hyponatremia, if present, indicates syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.[symptoma.com] Older patients are less likely to have headache and neck stiffness, and more likely to have altered mental status and focal neurologic deficits 11 , 13 ( Table 3 11 – 13 )[aafp.org] The combination of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 45%.[revclinesp.es]

  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    The combination of fever, headache, myalgias, marked left shift in the differential white blood cell count, severe thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia all help to suggest the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The patient initially presented with fever, rash, and an altered mental status, and he responded to therapy with intravenous doxycycline; serological data confirmed RMSF.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Rash, history of tick bite, thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia were often absent at initial presentation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Myxedema

    High mortality (30-60%) How do patients present (clinical diagnosis) AMS Hypothermia Hypotension Respiratory Failure Hypoglycemia Hyponatremia Potential physical exam findings[emdocs.net] mental status (patient doesn’t have to be in a coma to qualify).[uclaoliveview.org] The condition is diagnosed from a combination of abnormal thyroid function, physical examination findings of severe hypothyroidism, and altered mental status.[nejm.org]

  • Cryptococcal Meningitis

    He was also found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Altered mental status in cryptococcal meningitis results in poorer survival, but underlying causes of altered mentation are poorly understood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The most prevalent symptoms were headache (85.2%), altered vision (44.4%), altered mental status (44.4%), nausea (40.7%) and fever (33.3%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Reye Syndrome

    Hypoglycemia and hyponatremia are considered early predictors of poor prognosis.[symptoma.com] Reye's syndrome is a rare but serious condition that results in microvesicular hepatic steatosis (fatty changes of the liver) and acute encephalopathy (altered mental status[ebmconsult.com] Usually presents after a preceding viral infection with acute onset of profuse vomiting and altered mental status ranging from a personality change to coma.[bestpractice.bmj.com]

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