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25 Possible Causes for Altered Mental Status, Prominent Sulci, Visual Hallucination

  • Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

    B, Corresponding FLAIR image shows marked prominence of ventricles and sulci for the patient’s age.[ajnr.org] .— Acute cerebellitis is a clinically defined condition most commonly characterized by acute cerebellar ataxia, associated with nausea, headache, and altered mental status[doi.org] Her symptoms included behavioral change, visual hallucinations, vertigo, and recent falls.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • AIDS-associated Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[cid.oxfordjournals.org] Altered mental status is rare and if present should increase suspicion for acute purulent meningitis or encephalitis.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com] Focal meningeal and parenchymal enhancement is seen on MRI, and patients typically present with seizure or altered mental status.[hivinsite.ucsf.edu]

  • West Nile Encephalitis

    Arrows indicate subtle enhancement in the sulci. B and C, FLAIR images show increased signal intensity in the sulci, more prominent on the left than on the right.[ajnr.org] We report the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with fever, altered mental status, and maculopapular rash, who was diagnosed with locally acquired WNV encephalitis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Patients usually have a fever, headache, and altered mental status.[symptoma.com]

  • Postictal State

    Ventricles, sulci and cisterns were mildly prominent for age and there was mild cerebral cortical volume loss.[annals-general-psychiatry.biomedcentral.com] If a patient remains confused for longer than 20 minutes after a seizure, consider another cause of altered mental status [4].[ems1.com] hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, mood disorders, aggression and disorders of thought.[symptoma.com]

  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    There was complete resolution of cerebral edema in all patients and mild interval prominence of the cerebral sulci, which can indicate cerebral volume loss, in three out of[bloodjournal.org] His altered mental status, however, resolved with control of blood pressure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In addition to visual hallucinations, he displayed auditory hallucinations and delusions.[cureus.com]

  • Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[academic.oup.com] An extensive laboratory workup for the etiology of his altered mental status was unremarkable, except for a mildly elevated white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid[mdedge.com] hallucinations will probably be easily identified as a possible medical condition manifesting through behavioural changes [ 5 ].[cpementalhealth.biomedcentral.com]

  • Hypoxia

    Grossly, the lesion was marked by preserved gyral crests and involved sulci, resulting in prominent, mushroom-shaped gyri.[emedicine.medscape.com] Moderate hypoxia can induce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as arousing auditory and visual memories ( Brugger 1999 ).[anesthesiaweb.org] Malfunction of the temporal cortex and deeper structures can induce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as arousing auditory and visual memories ( Brugger 1999 ).[anesthesiaweb.org]

  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    They can range from hyperintensities in the parietal and occipital region, brain stem lesions, and marked atrophy, causing prominence of sulci.[cureus.com] mental status.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Marchiafava Bignami Disease

    Findings CT shows mild prominence of the ventricles and sulci consistent with mild generalized cerebral volume loss.[neuroradiologyonthenet.blogspot.com] Marchiafava-Bignami disease, a rare alcohol-related disorder, characterized by altered mental status, seizure, and multifocal central nervous system signs, which results from[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Marchiafava-Bignami disease as a cause of visual hallucinations. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2015; 37 : 82–83. 31. Kumar KS, Challam RJN, Singh WJ.[oadoi.org]

  • Brain Stem Herniation

    The fluid space between the cortex and the calvarium appears to be increased and the sulci/gyri may appear prominent. View prominent sulci/gyri.[hawaii.edu] The patient is disoriented, shows fear and irritability, over reactivity and faulty perception of sensory stimuli sometimes accompanied by visual hallucinations.[brainmind.com] Note the prominent sulci and gyri despite intracranial hemorrhage. 2.[hawaii.edu]

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