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119 Possible Causes for Areflexia of the Upper Limbs

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    […] in the upper limbs and hyporeflexia in the lower limbs.[] We hereby present a male patient with a diagnosis of symptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy at 44 years-old who developed, soon after, weakness of distal right upper limb.[] […] neurological examination revealed severe atrophy of right thenar muscles, flexion contractures on the right elbow, wrist and fingers, bilateral calf hypertrophy, myotatic areflexia[]

  • Autonomic Neuropathy

    Neurological studies revealed almost complete sensory loss affecting all modalities in the upper and lower limbs, minimal involvement of motor fibers, and areflexia.[]

  • Vasculitis

    The neurological status revealed quadriparesis to paraplegia for the lower limbs – peripheral type, knee and Achilles areflexia, tactile hypesthesia in the upper limbs – distal[]

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    […] in the upper limbs.[] In contrast to Ropper's cases, sensory disturbance in the upper limbs was also noted in nearly two-thirds of patients in the more recent series. 2 Some patients also displayed[] All patients had oropharyngeal weakness, neck weakness and arm weakness and areflexia in upper limbs of 7 to 12 days duration. Facial weakness was seen in 3/8 patients.[]

  • Miller-Fisher Syndrome

    Physical examination on admission showed diminished eye movements in all directions, mild bilateral ptosis, areflexia, upper limb incoordination, and reduced limb sensation[] Both patients presented with upper and lower limb paresthesias and severe weakness, bulbar and facial weakness, ophthalmoparesis and areflexia.[] Examination showed reduced eye movements in all directions, limb incoordination, and generalised areflexia in the absence of detectable motor weakness.[]

  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Neurological examination showed a brachial diplegia, distal vibratory, thermic and algic hypoesthesia, deep tendon areflexia in upper limbs.[] After being unconscious for three hours, a 42 years old man experienced bilateral brachial weakness associated with edema of the face and the upper limbs.[]

  • Syringomyelia

    The lesion produces a central medullary syndrome with dissociated loss of sensation and paresis of the upper limb areflexia.[]

  • Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    On examination he had complete ophthalmoplegia, facial diplegia, bulbar dysarthria, mild bilateral shoulder abduction weakness, bilateral upper limb ataxia, generalised areflexia[] […] is explained by the involvement of the mesencephalic and upper pontine reticular formations.[] In the nerve conduction studies, most patients with BBE without limb weakness were normal, whereas half of those who had BBE and overlapping GBS showed indications of motor[]

  • Autosomal Recessive Lower Motor Neuron Disease with Childhood Onset

    limb, proximal No Yes Upper limb, distal Yes Yes Lower limb, proximal Yes Yes Lower limb, distal Yes Yes Muscle atrophy Proximal distal Proximal distal (generalized) Sensory[] They occur in young men (mean 20 years of age) and present with asymmetric distal wasting and weakness confined to a single upper or lower limb without involvement of cranial[] […] loss Yes No Areflexia Yes Yes Pyramidal sign No No Bulbar symptom No No Cranial neuropathy No No Foot deformity Yes Yes Scoliosis No Yes Respiratory dysfunction No Yes (60%[]

  • Neurogenic Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita

    Power in the upper limbs was restricted to movements of the digits.[] Examination revealed tachypnea, pooling of secretions, V-shaped upper lip and tongue fasciculations.[] Gag reflex was absent, there was bilateral asymmetric facial nerve palsy, areflexia, hypotonia and reduced muscle bulk with preservation of the thenar and hypothenar eminences[]

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