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80 Possible Causes for Astigmatic Refractive Errors, Dyslexia

  • Presbyopia

    Refractive Error There are three types of refractive error: myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Myopia or "nearsightedness".[] There are several other types of refractive errors: myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism.[] Astigmatism Astigmatism is a refraction error of the eye in which there is a difference in degree of refraction in different meridians.[]

  • Disorder of Refraction and Accommodation

    When one has a cylindrical error, one has astigmatism. The common refractive disorders are described below.[] Dyslexia – a specific language-based disorder.[] Astigmatism : A person with astigmatic refractive error sees lines of a particular orientation less clearly than lines at right angles to them.[]

  • Down Syndrome

    It turns out Ally has dyslexia.[] Hyperopia (36.9%) was the most frequent refractive error in the group, followed by astigmatism (29.2%) and myopia (24.6%).[] Achievement of Students With Dyslexia, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 6, (515), (2010).[]

  • Vision Disorder

    How many children are affected by learning related vision disorders (such as in cases of children with suspected or diagnosed learning disabilities, developmental delays, dyslexia[] To individuals with uncorrected astigmatism, images may look blurry or shadowed. Astigmatism can accompany any form of refractive error and is very common.[] Book, links, software, videos, etc. to help individuals develop a better understanding of learning disabilities including dyslexia.[]

  • Congenital Anomaly of the Retina

    refractive error  segmental- hyperopic shift  Volume of the eye  Altered compliance, ocular rigidity 72.[] […] in the eye  Axial length of the eye-  Encircling- Increased/decreased axial length depending upon material, location, height of buckle  Induced spherical equivalent & astigmatic[]

  • Hyperopia

    Hyperopia (also called “farsightedness”) is a refractive error of the eye (like myopia and astigmatism ).[] […] chromatic aberrations, accommodative and binocular dysfunction and asthenopia); other specific clinical diseases or conditions (intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, dyslexia[] The refractive error of the right eye was severely overcorrected due to data entry error.[]

  • Eye Muscle Disorder

    The Dyslexia Research Trust ( offers free testing and coloured glasses.[] Astigmatism is refractive error caused by abnormal curvature of the cornea (the clear layer in front of the iris and pupil).[] Refractive errors: Any need for glasses, for example, nearsighted (myopic), farsighted (hyperopic), or astigmatism.[]

  • Exophoria

    A child with undiagnosed exophoria may be diagnosed with other conditions including: ADHD learning disabilities short attention span issues dyslexia Children with undiagnosed[] Refractive error Hyperopia Myopia Astigmatism Anisometropia / Aniseikonia Presbyopia Vision disorders Blindness Amblyopia Leber's congenital amaurosis Diplopia Scotoma Color[] Non-Surgical Management Options Of Intermittent Exotropia 1.Spectacle Correction of Refractive Errors: Refractive errors myopia, hyperopia.[]

  • Strabismus

    Vision, Reading and Dyslexia 62. Neurometabolic Disease and the Eye 63. Pupil Abnormalities and Reactions 64. Leukaemia 65. Phakomatoses 66. Accidental Trauma 67.[] In the multivariable regression model strabismus was associated with GA (OR   0.84 per week; p   0.001), hyperopic refractive error (OR   4.22; p   0.002) and astigmatism[] She was having odd problems with letter reversals and I was looking into dyslexia when a friend told me about her son who had the same problem.[]

  • Amblyopia

    DYSLEXIA: (dyslexic). Margaret S.[] The most common causes are misalignment of the eyes ( strabismus ) and uncorrected (usually asymmetric) refractive errors (e.g., farsightedness, nearsightedness, or astigmatism[] Children with a refractive error (nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism) will need glasses. Next, a patch is placed on the normal eye.[]

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