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98 Possible Causes for Bicarbonate Decreased, Chloride Increased, Dysphagia

  • Cystinosis

    Slow eating and dysphagia are common. Heterozygotes may have elevated levels of free cystine in leukocytes.[] The patients were treated with polycitra, potassium chloride and Joulie’s solution.[] A subset of patients may also suffer from dysphagia, malnutrition and frequent aspiration. These patients are usually treated with an implantation of a gastrostomy tube.[]

  • Respiratory Alkalosis

    Measurement of the serum bicarbonate permits definitive diagnosis: acute respiratory alkalosis: serum bicarbonate decreases by 2 mM for every 10 mmHg (or 1.33kPa) decrease[] Serum chloride: Increased. Serum calcium: Decreased. Urine pH: Increased, greater than 7.0.[] Often, UVFP is associated with dysphagia, specifically with liquids, because the resultant glottal incompetence can lead to aspiration.[]

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Cigarette smoking can reduce the LES pressure[ 117 – 119 ] and decrease salivary bicarbonate secretion, thus reducing the physiological neutralizing effect of saliva on intraesophageal[] Medication-induced reflux - see list above of medications which increase the risk of GERD.[] Outcomes selected were recurrent or persistent postoperative dysphagia and an abnormal 24-hour pH test result.[]

  • Peptic Esophagitis

    […] may show a decreased salivary bicarbonate response to acid perfusion challenge to the distal esophagus.[] You are at increased risk for this type of esophagitis if you have a weakened immune system due to disease or medications.[] Typical symptoms include pyrosis, dysphagia and regurgitation.[]

  • Dehydration

    Mechanisms include bicarbonate loss in stool, ketone production from starvation, and lactic acid production from decreased tissue perfusion.[] . - Reduced fluid intake, for example, anorexia, - dysphagia, depression, dementia, confusion, - Laxatives, diuretics, lithium - Dietary or fluid restrictions, - Polypharmacy[] A significant increase or decrease in chloride levels in the body can lead to serious health problems, including death.[]

  • Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis

    The nephrons, when bathed in an acidic solution, demonstrated an acid-induced adaptive decrease in bicarbonate secretion.[] These include sicca symptoms (dryness and irritation of eyes, dysphagia, dental caries, hoarseness of voice), musculoskeletal symptoms (fatigue, arthralgia), nephrocalcinosis[] A decrease in proximal tubular bicarbonate resorptive capacity results in proximal (type 2) RTA.[]

  • Esophageal Ulcer

    In turn, less prostaglandin E was available to promote bicarbonate and mucus secretion, which are protective of the gastrointestinal mucosa [ 12 ].[] Esophageal involvement of multiple myeloma should be kept in mind in patients presenting with dysphagia.[] You are at increased risk for this type of esophagitis if you have a weakened immune system due to disease or medications.[]

  • Diabetes Insipidus

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to intravenous fluids to correct metabolic acidosis.[] General tiredness Inflamed or swollen areas around fingernails Sudden or progressive weakness in muscles in neck, hip, back, and shoulder muscles Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia[] When there is very little fluid compared to the concentration of solute, the pituitary will increase ADH production.[]

  • Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Hypoxia (oxygen saturation Treatment includes increased oxygen delivery (100% oxygen), decreasing the PCO2 and treating acidosis with sodium bicarbonate (0.5-1 mEq/kg) for[] Granderath FA, Schweiger UM, Kamolz T, Pointner R (2005) Dysphagia after laparoscopic antireflux surgery: a problem of hiatal closure more than a problem of the wrap.[] […] for central administration to increase the systemic vascular resistance.[]

  • Presbyesophagus

    Gum, especially bicarbonate gum, has been shown to increase salivary bicarbonate and prevent reflux.[] No increase in abnormal spontaneous motility was noted in the elderly men. These findings suggest a weakening in esophageal smooth muscle with an intact nervous pathway.[] Among the dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia occurs more commonly in the aged.[]

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