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1,139 Possible Causes for Brainstem Abnormalities

  • Leigh's Disease

    It presents early in life with psychomotor regression, abnormal muscle tone, weakness, dystonia, brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction (ataxia), visual loss, missed milestones[] Our experience suggested that bilateral symmetric T2 prolongation involving multiple brainstem nuclei/structures associated with basal ganglia abnormalities in a child with[] MRI MRI abnormalities are heterogeneous and differ depending on the underlying genetic abnormality 8 . Generally, the distribution tends to be symmetrical.[]

  • TUBB2B-Related Polymicrogyria

    The lateral ventricles are large and there is periventricular whie matter signal abnormality. The brainstem is small and the cerebellum is dysplastic.[] […] vermian abnormalities.[] […] of the internal capsule and corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the brainstem and corticospinal tracts), and migration or postmigration defects (abnormal cortex and hippocampal[]

  • Sinus Arrhythmia

    The study sample consisted of three patients with anatomic brainstem abnormalities associated with isolated Chiari I malformation, Chiari II malformation with syringobulbia[] In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that intrinsic and extrinsic brainstem lesions situated within the pontomedullary region would effect the integrity of respiratory[]

  • Propofol

    An adolescent girl had isolated abnormal downward gaze and oculovestibular (cold caloric) testing during propofol administration, prompting concern for brainstem abnormality[] Brainstem reflexes were normal except that both eyes exhibited tonic downward gaze on initial examination.[]

  • Meige Syndrome

    Also frequent Lewy bodies were present in pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. No abnormalities were detected elsewhere.[] These pathological findings support the notion that brainstem pathology is important in the pathophysiology of cranial dystonia.[]

  • Brachycephaly

    CT brain scans showed an enlarged foramen magnum in the mother and daughter but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no brainstem abnormality in either.[]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    These signs appear due to progressive atrophy of the spinal cord and the cerebellum, whereas the appearance of brainstem abnormalities, visual deficits, sexual dysfunction[] abnormalities, the clinical presentation of PPMS is comprised of two main symptoms - spastic paraplegia (often described with an unclear sensory level) and ataxia.[] Compared to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which encompasses the vast majority of MS patients and presents with optic neuritis and other isolated spinal cord/brainstem[]

  • Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Brainstem abnormalities become more evident with time, in line with ataxia. Piracetam is effective for both seizures and ataxia.[]

  • Pontine Glioma

    Once a clinician suspects a brainstem abnormality, the radiologic study of choice is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).[]

  • Familial Dysautonomia

    The brainstem reflex abnormalities in FD are best explained by impairment of the afferent and central pathways.[] All patients had significantly prolonged latencies and decreased amplitudes of all examined brainstem reflexes.[] Similar abnormalities were seen in the early and late components. In contrast, direct stimulation of the facial nerve revealed relative preservation of motor responses.[]

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