Create issue ticket

910 Possible Causes for Brainstem Abnormalities

  • Leigh's Disease

    It presents early in life with psychomotor regression, abnormal muscle tone, weakness, dystonia, brainstem and cerebellar dysfunction (ataxia), visual loss, missed milestones[] MRI MRI abnormalities are heterogeneous and differ depending on the underlying genetic abnormality 8 . Generally, the distribution tends to be symmetrical.[] Most patients with SURF1 mutations affecting COX have MRI abnormalities involving brainstem and subthalamic nuclei. 34, 35 However, there are some exceptions. 36 The reasons[]

  • TUBB2B-Related Polymicrogyria

    […] of the internal capsule and corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the brainstem and corticospinal tracts), and migration or postmigration defects (abnormal cortex and hippocampal[] The associated phenotypic spectrum encompasses a wide range of brain malformations, all reflecting axon guidance disturbances (abnormal fascicles and axon tracts, abnormalities[]

  • Gaucher Disease Type 3

    These abnormalities could be due to a single lesion in the dorsomedial brainstem, or to multiple lesions, and further study is needed to clarify this issue.[] We found a constellation of abnormalities including bilaterally raised acoustic reflexes, poor medial olivo-cochlear suppression, and very poor brainstem evoked potentials[] ABR), acoustic reflexes and medial olivo-cochlear suppression by contralateral noise tests, that involve overlapping but not identical efferent and afferent pathways and brainstem[]

  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    abnormalities that could have had a triggering role in causing the sudden death of these babies.[] Even though the pathogenesis remains unexplained, brainstem abnormalities of the neuronal network that mediates breathing and protective responses to asphyxia, particularly[] […] hemangioendothelioma (case 4) and mild pneumonia (case 5) alone might or might not have accounted for the sudden deaths, if it had not been for the location and/or concomitant presence of brainstem[]

  • Hereditary Hyperekplexia

    RESULTS: Both FH/AH and SMS patients had abnormal propagation of brainstem reflexes into pericranial muscles.[] Abnormal signaling in neurons in the brain and neurons that send signals to muscles throughout the body result in abnormal muscle movements, exaggerated startle reaction,[] Whether such neuronal dysfunction represents cortical dysfunction or an epiphenomenon of diencephalic or brainstem abnormalities is currently unknown.[]

  • Horizontal Gaze Palsy with Progressive Scoliosis

    Brain MRI revealed similar brainstem abnormalities as detected in Patient 1. Evoked potentials were not performed.[] Diffusion tensor MRI shows abnormal brainstem crossing fibers associated with ROBO3 mutations. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8;67(3):519-21.[] Brainstem developmental abnormalities were detected by MRI studies, featuring a partial midline split in the medulla oblongata and pons with posterior focus.[]

  • Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    A second MRI showed extension of the brainstem involvement without new lesions. A cervical spine MRI showed no abnormalities.[] […] auditory evoked potentials (prolongation of wave I latency) suggested peripheral abnormalities.[] […] on T2w FLAIR imaging that can be present in the supratentorial white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord, with or without contrast enhancement.[]

  • Early-Onset Cerebellar Ataxia

    The severity of brainstem atrophy in 14 patients with and 12 patients without abnormal brainstem auditory evoked response did not differ significantly.[] Four patients with PEOCA had SEP abnormalities similar to those seen in FA.[] One or more modalities of evoked potentials were abnormal in 71.4%, that of brainstem auditory evoked response being most frequent (50%), followed by posterior tibial somatosensory[]

  • Alexander Disease

    Radiologically, both can demonstrate white matter changes, signal abnormalities of basal ganglia or thalami, brainstem abnormalities and contrast enhancement of white matter[] […] of the basal ganglia and thalami, brainstem abnormalities, and contrast enhancement of particular gray and white matter structures) and are now highly reliable benchmarks[] Diagnostic methods MRI shows characteristic leukodystrophy with frontal, basal ganglia signal abnormality, brainstem signal abnormality and contrast enhancement.[]

  • Athabaskan Brainstem Dysgenesis Syndrome

    Abthabascan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome is a rare disorder with diverse neurological problems that arises from abnormal brainstem functions.[] […] from abnormal brainstem function.[] Abstract We report a new disorder with diverse neurological problems resulting from abnormal brainstem function.[]

Further symptoms