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18 Possible Causes for Central Focal Spike-and-Slow-Waves

  • Neonatal Seizures

    Herein we report a case of a male infant with hyperekplexia. He was born after an uneventful pregnancy to healthy unrelated parents. At 2 days, he began to have frequent episodes of apnea accompanied with generalized tonic posture. Phenobarbital had been prescribed for the suspicion of neonatal seizures.[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Epilepsy

    In infancy, the EEG background was normal (1), showed diffuse (3) or focal slowing that was temporal (1) and in the left hemisphere (1), and showed focal (central, temporal[brain.oxfordjournals.org] ) discharges or generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[brain.oxfordjournals.org] After infancy, the EEG background was normal (5), showed diffuse slowing (10) or focal slowing that was bilateral fronto-temporal (2) and left temporal (1).[brain.oxfordjournals.org]

  • Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus

    In infancy, the EEG background was normal (1), showed diffuse (3) or focal slowing that was temporal (1) and in the left hemisphere (1), and showed focal (central, temporal[brain.oxfordjournals.org] ) discharges or generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[brain.oxfordjournals.org] After infancy, the EEG background was normal (5), showed diffuse slowing (10) or focal slowing that was bilateral fronto-temporal (2) and left temporal (1).[brain.oxfordjournals.org]

  • Ohtahara Syndrome

    In infancy, the EEG background was normal (1), showed diffuse (3) or focal slowing that was temporal (1) and in the left hemisphere (1), and showed focal (central, temporal[dx.doi.org] ) discharges or generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[dx.doi.org] After infancy, the EEG background was normal (5), showed diffuse slowing (10) or focal slowing that was bilateral fronto-temporal (2) and left temporal (1).[dx.doi.org]

  • Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy

    In infancy, the EEG background was normal (1), showed diffuse (3) or focal slowing that was temporal (1) and in the left hemisphere (1), and showed focal (central, temporal[dx.doi.org] ) discharges or generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[dx.doi.org] After infancy, the EEG background was normal (5), showed diffuse slowing (10) or focal slowing that was bilateral fronto-temporal (2) and left temporal (1).[dx.doi.org]

  • Postictal State

    These discharges consisted of continuous spikes, sharp and slow waves that fluctuated in frequency and amplitude.[annsaudimed.net] Continuous focal discharges were seen over the left central (C3) and mid temporal regions and lasted through the one hour EEG recording.[annsaudimed.net]

  • NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase Deficiency

    […] nervous system]; Lack of psychomotor development; Intractable seizures; Focal seizures; Absence seizures; Generalized seizures; Hypotonia; EEG abnormalities; Abnormal spike[findzebra.com] waves; Slowed background activity; MRI shows short, thick corpus callosum; Persistent cavus septum pellucidum; [Peripheral nervous system]; Hyporeflexia MISCELLANEOUS: Delayed[findzebra.com] INHERITANCE: Autosomal recessive HEAD AND NECK: [Face]; High forehead; [Eyes]; Downslanting palpebral fissures; Ptosis; Arched eyebrows; Laterally placed eyebrows NEUROLOGIC: [Central[findzebra.com]

  • Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome

    Focal spikes slow/slow-and-sharp-wave activity can be seen in central and occipital areas.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    . [ 3 ] The characteristic diffuse slow spike-wave pattern gradually disappears with age and is replaced by focal epileptic discharges.[patient.info] […] with irregular spike wave Rare Rare Yes M AA GTC Focal West Usually Hypsarrhythmia Yes Yes Usually impaired Pseudo Lennox (ABPE) 2–5 years Central spikes and GSW No Yes 26[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] The characteristic interictal EEG pattern is 1.5-2.5 Hz slow spike-wave activity, which is bilaterally synchronous, dominant over the fronto-central regions, and usually symmetrical[patient.info]

  • Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy

    EEG recordings during sleep showed focal and multifocal isolated slow spikes or rarely fast spikes or polyspikes in frontal, central, and vertex regions in 27 children (58.6%[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] ) and generalized spikes and polyspike waves in 30 children (54.3%).[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] Interictal EEG recordings while awake showed generalized polyspike and polyspike‐wave paroxysms in eight children.[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

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