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311 Possible Causes for Clonus, Hypernatremia, Hyperreflexia, Muscle Hypotonia

  • Stroke

    Focal seizures were distinguished clinically from clonus, spasms, and recurrent strokes. 8 9 Electroencephalograms were not routinely performed.[] An examination showed decreased strength on the right side, with hyperreflexia and an up-going plantar response.[]

    Missing: Muscle Hypotonia
  • Myelopathy

    Physical examination revealed significant increase in deep tendon reflexes in the lower extremities and clonus. Hoffman's sign was positive in the left upper extremity.[] Clinical hyperreflexia was tested at the MCP joint, using a six-axis load cell.[] […] with radicular symptoms - 16% had pure myelopathic symptoms - 23% had a combination of myelopathic and radiculopathy - upper motor neuron findings such as hyper-reflexia, clonus[] Symptoms and Signs Cord compression commonly causes gradual spastic paresis, paresthesias, or both in the hands and feet and may cause hyperreflexia.[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia
  • Infantile-Onset Autosomal Recessive Nonprogressive Cerebellar Ataxia

    Decreased muscle tone Low muscle tone [ more ] 0001290 Hyperreflexia Increased reflexes 0001347 Intention tremor 0002080 Motor delay 0001270 Muscular hypotonia Low or weak[] […] reduction of nerve transmission giving rise to various clinical manifestations such as paresthesias, loss of vibratory sensation, and proprioception.Severe weakness, spasticity, clonus[] […] primordial dwarfism, Montreal type Microcephalic primordial dwarfism, Toriello type Microcephaly-brachydactyly-kyphoscoliosis syndrome Microcephaly-brain defect-spasticity-hypernatremia[] […] surgery Two most common varieties: Spastic paresis (70%) Combination of spasticity (causes slow clumsy movements; usually accompanied by hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, clonus[]

  • Hyponatremia

    Assessment of Hypernatremia (serum sodium 145 mEq/L [ 145 mmol/L]) FIGURE 2. Algorithm for the assessment of hypernatremia.[] Hypernatremia can cause: confusion neuromuscular excitability hyperreflexia seizures coma[] As the serum sodium falls to 115 mEq/L, stupor, neuromuscular hyperexcitability, hyperreflexia, seizures, coma, and death can result.[] […] often associated with impairment of water metabolism in elderly patients, it is absolutely essential for clinicians to be aware of the pathophysiology of hyponatremia and hypernatremia[]

    Missing: Clonus
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Muscle tone may vary from mild hypotonia to manifest hypertonia, rigidity and opisthotonus.[] The Hunter Criteria are often used (Sensitivity 84%): Serotonergic agent plus 1 of the following: Spontaneous clonus Inducible clonus agitation or diaphoresis Ocular Clonus[] Electrolyte abnormalities: hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypo and hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis.[] However, NMS is characterised by 'lead-pipe' rigidity, whilst serotonin syndrome is characterised by hyperreflexia and clonus.[]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    : Loss of muscle tone Gait ataxia: Loss of balance Dysmetria : Inability to coordinate movement in which your either overshoot or undershoot the intended position of your[] Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty[] […] cerebellar syndrome (PCS), is seen less often than progressive myelopathy but can manifest with: Tremor: Impairment of fine hand movement due to severe intention tremor Hypotonia[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia
  • Spastic Paraplegia

    In infancy, children with SPG47 have very low muscle tone ( hypotonia ).[] This case showed spasticity and hyperreflexia with pathological reflexes and ankle clonus as well as muscle weakness in all extremities.[] The knee-jerk is excessive and ankle-clonus is easily obtained.[] On neurological examination, he showed hyperreflexia, spasticity, and weakness in the lower extremities and bilateral Babinski reflexes.[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease

    At 6 to 10 months limp and floppy muscles (hypotonia). decreased alertness and playfulness. difficulty sitting up or rolling over loss of motor skills. decreased hearing and[] […] attentiveness Increased startle response A cherry red spot of the fovea centralis of the macula of the retina can be seen in 90% of cases Hyperreflexia with sustained ankle clonus[] Examination of reflexes shows hyperreflexia.[] As affected infants age, they may experience slow growth, progressive muscle weakness, diminished muscle tone (hypotonia), and diminished mental functioning.[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia
  • Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders with muscle weakness, hypotonia and contractures present at birth.[] Paradoxically, some patients have limb spasticity and hyperreflexia with pyramidal signs. No cerebellar signs are present.[] Hypotonia means decreased muscle tone. Hypotonia is often a sign of a worrisome problem. The condition can affect children or adults.[] […] tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness at birth.[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia
  • Cerebral Palsy with Spastic Diplegia

    Hypotonia will usually occur before 1 year old. The muscle tone increases with age and progress to Hypertonia.[] During testing we observed clonus only in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.[] Classification Physiologic Classification Spastic (most common) Velocity-dependent increased muscle tone and hyperreflexia with slow, restricted movement due to simultaneous[] Hypertonia is associated with spastic Cerebral Palsy Hypotonia/Hypotonic — decreased muscle tone, often resulting in loose, floppy limbs.[]

    Missing: Hypernatremia

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