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36 Possible Causes for Cognitive Defect, Muscle Cramp, Nocturnal Leg Cramp

  • Hypoglycemia

    cramps, occasionally cause hypoglycemia.[] Certain drugs other than those for diabetes, most notably pentamidine, used to treat a form of pneumonia that occurs most often as part of AIDS, and quinine, used to treat muscle[]

  • Hyponatremia

    Anthropomorphic characteristics, exercise time, and post-exercise ratings of thermal sensation, perceived exertion and muscle cramp were similar for LC, AM and CON.[] And contrary to popular belief, muscle cramps and fatigue aren't caused by dehydration but from pushing too hard.[] cramps and that when severe may be life-threatening if untreated … aspirin and other pain relievers like ibuprofen … seem to increase the risk for hyponatremia. — Harvard[]

  • Chronic Kidney Insufficiency

    Muscle cramps. Darkness of skin. Cleveland Clinic News & More Cleveland Clinic News & More[] cramping Dry, itchy skin Frequent urination Once CKD is diagnosed it is important to determine the level of kidney function.[] Muscle cramps. Fluid retention which causes swollen feet and ankles. Puffiness around the eyes. A need to pass urine more often than usual. Being pale due to anaemia.[]

  • Chronic Alcoholism

    Pain “Pins and needles” Numbness Muscle weakness, cramps, or aches Muscle spasms / contractions Tingling Constipation Diarrhea Incontinence (leaking urine) or difficulty with[]

  • Hypocalcemia

    cramps, abdominal cramps, and overly active reflexes).[] Cognitive defects such as mental retardation and memory impairment have been encountered.[] Muscle cramps involving the back and legs are common.[]

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    In patients presenting with muscle cramps, obstructive sleep apnea should be considered.[] We describe a case series of 4 patients with varying degrees of obstructive sleep apnea who incidentally had a history of nocturnal leg cramps.[] In 3 of the 4 patients, nocturnal leg cramps resolved with CPAP treatment for OSA, while the fourth patient noted near-resolution of cramping after starting CPAP.[]

  • Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome

    cramps, or aging (National Institutes of Health 2005).[] Other abnormal movements that may be confused with nocturnal myoclonus are the startles of hyperekplexia, the syndrome of painful legs and moving toes, nocturnal leg cramps[] Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), is a condition in which a person’s legs or arms twitch, cramp or move involuntarily and periodically during sleep.[]

  • Spastic Paraplegia

    There are three main features of FSP: the legs become stiff (spasticity) and there is a variable amount of weakness (paraplegia), and muscle cramps and spasms can also be[] Maximal expression of SPG20 in the limb buds and forebrain during embryogenesis may explain the developmental origin of the skeletal and cognitive defects observed in this[] Hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response and increased muscle tone are the recognized UMN signs where as the weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations[]

  • Parkinson's Disease

    cramps, orthostatic complaints, somnolence, diarrhea, confusion, dizziness, headache, hallucination, vomiting, constipation, fatigue, upper respiratory tract infection, falling[] A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex 1976 ;12: 313 - 324 31. Mattis S.[] […] handwriting ( micrographia ) stooped posture trouble sleeping constipation pain decreased sense of smell muscle aches tiredness Depression is common in people with Parkinson's[]

  • Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    cramps which developed over a period of few hours.[] , gonadal atrophy, hearing deficiencies, and cognitive deficits.[] Moderate hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5–3 mEq/L (Normal Level: 3.5–5.0 mEq/L), may cause muscle weakness, myalgia, and muscle cramps, and constipation[]

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