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224 Possible Causes for Confusion, Deep White Matter Changes

  • Hyponatremia

    In the brain MRI, millimeter-sized chronic microangiopathic ischemic signal changes were observed in the periventricular deep white matter; no mass image was seen in the pituitary[reumatologiaclinica.org] Moderate - personality change, muscle cramps and weakness, confusion, ataxia. Severe - drowsiness.[patient.info] A 41 year old Jordanian gentleman known case of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with vomiting, decreased oral intake followed by confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Stroke

    Early features include: loss of grey-white matter differentiation, and hypoattenuation of deep nuclei: lentiform nucleus changes seen as early as 1 hour after occlusion, visible[radiopaedia.org] The symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech; sudden trouble[ninds.nih.gov] It is frequently confused with peripheral nerve system (PNS) pathologies; misdiagnosis may delay identification of the etiology and treatment of stroke.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Dementia

    It may be particularly related to frontal deep white matter lesions. 16 Cognitive and behavioral changes in SVD are due to disruption of the frontal cortico-subcortical circuit[doi.org] Treating conditions that can lead to confusion often greatly improve mental function.[medlineplus.gov] These include restlessness and agitation, depression, anxiety, forgetfulness and confusion.[symptoma.com]

  • Susac Syndrome

    In addition, high-signal-intensity changes are usually seen in the periventricular white matter and the deep gray matter [ 1 ].[ajronline.org] At 1-month follow-up, patient's confusion had resolved. The second patient was a 32-year-old man who had acute onset of confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Though most commonly involving white matter, many patients also had lesions in deep grey matter structures, as well as leptomeningeal enhancement.[en.wikipedia.org]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Consistent with this reduction, we showed that changes in diffusion indices of tissue damage within major clinically relevant white matter (corpus callosum and corticospinal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] weeks, and include progressive weakness on one side of the body or clumsiness of limbs, disturbance of vision, and changes in thinking, memory, and orientation leading to confusion[ocrevus.com] The confusion may arise because the disease modifying drugs for relapsing remitting MS are not available to people with primary progressive MS.[mstrust.org.uk]

  • Meningoencephalitis

    Nevertheless, autopsy of the patient revealed frank ischemic changes (subacute infarcts) in the deep hemispheric white matter ( Fig 3 G ).[ajnr.org] Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We present a case involving an 85-year-old man with acute confusion and new onset seizure following a 1-week history of respiratory prodrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Alcohol Dementia

    The CT showed prominent sulci and gyri with deep white matter changes. There were no other abnormalities.[gponline.com] Signs and Symptoms Confusion may be the most obvious early symptom of dementia, but this confusion is also accompanied by obvious memory problems.[verywellmind.com] Objects seen in dim light may be particularly terrifying, and the people become extremely confused.[merckmanuals.com]

  • Metabolic Encephalopathy

    white matter changes may be seen, with the appearance of hyperintensity on T2 sequences in the region of internal capsule, corona radiata, and splenium of corpus callosum[neurologyindia.com] These include patients with known diabetes who experience symptoms of confusion due to low blood sugar.[healthcare-online.org] , hallucinations, confusion, autonomic features); Seizures within 48 hours Wernicke's encephalopathy Triad: Opthalmoparesis (nystagmus), gait ataxia and confusion; Responds[quizlet.com]

  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    White matter changes (WMC) INPH is known to be associated with deep white matter changes (DWMC) and smooth periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) [ 51 ] on MRI ( Figure 2B )[intechopen.com] This often involves confusion, short-term memory loss/forgetfulness, trouble paying attention, changes in mood, and a lack of interest in daily activities.[my.clevelandclinic.org] White-matter changes: A distinction is drawn between periventricular and “deepwhite matter changes ( e49, e50 ); only the former are considered a sign of NPH.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Vascular Dementia

    Several pathogenic mechanisms appear implicated in the causation the deep white matter changes of Binswanger's disease, and hypoxia-ischemia resulting from watershed injury[web.archive.org] Later sign: feeling disoriented and confused According to the Alzheimer’s Society, over time a sufferer is likely to develop more serious confusion or disorientation.[express.co.uk] Periventricular and deep white matter changes on T 2 -weighted MRI that are excessive for age 2 … … 3. Focal changes in electroencephalographic studies 3 27 1 31.8 D.[dx.doi.org]

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