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89 Possible Causes for Confusion, Prominent Sulci

  • Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[] Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess.[] We present a case involving an 85-year-old man with acute confusion and new onset seizure following a 1-week history of respiratory prodrome.[]

  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    There was complete resolution of cerebral edema in all patients and mild interval prominence of the cerebral sulci, which can indicate cerebral volume loss, in three out of[] The patient was initially presented with a 4-day history of confusion.[] Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with headache and confusion and bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema.[]

  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    This often involves confusion, short-term memory loss/forgetfulness, trouble paying attention, changes in mood, and a lack of interest in daily activities.[] NPH is suggested when ventricular dilation is out of proportion to the prominence of the sulci, but this is a subjective call.[] The symptoms are sometimes confused with those of Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.[]

  • Citrullinemia Type 2

    B, Contrast-enhanced axial CT scan shows prominent cingulate gyri atrophy and ulegyric changes in the frontal lobes.[] Characteristic features include confusion, abnormal behaviors (such as aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity), seizures, and coma.[] […] characterized clinically by adult onset (20 and 50 years of age), recurrent episodes of hyperammonemia and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as nocturnal delirium, confusion[]

  • Alcohol Dementia

    The CT showed prominent sulci and gyri with deep white matter changes. There were no other abnormalities.[] Objects seen in dim light may be particularly terrifying, and the people become extremely confused.[] Signs and Symptoms Confusion may be the most obvious early symptom of dementia, but this confusion is also accompanied by obvious memory problems.[]

  • AIDS-associated Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[] Rapid neurologic decline (hemiplegia, visual field defects, ataxia, aphasia) HIV Encephalopathy Progressive memory loss, depression, movement disorders CMV encephalitis Confusion[] Contact your health care provider if you have headaches, a stiff neck, vision problems, confusion, nausea, or vomiting.[]

  • Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

    B, Corresponding FLAIR image shows marked prominence of ventricles and sulci for the patient’s age.[] She was mildly confused, with left-sided hyperreflexia, a wide-based gait, and intention tremor in her left upper limb.[] He was noted to be increasingly confused and a subsequent MRI showed extensive bilateral posterior cortical changes consistent with cytotoxic oedema.[]

  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    SSPE should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis which has a similar cause but very different timing and course.[] They can range from hyperintensities in the parietal and occipital region, brain stem lesions, and marked atrophy, causing prominence of sulci.[] The early stages of SSPE are subtle and often confused with other issues.[]

  • Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    CT head showed prominent sulci suggestive of cerebral atrophy.[] The following day, the patient returned to the emergency department by ambulance with fever, confusion, agitation, and a severe headache, for which he was admitted.[] They may become confused and sleepy and may have seizures. The infection can progress rapidly, causing death within 10 days.[]

  • Coccidioidomycosis

    […] pulmonary vascularity; increased heart size suggesting diffuse chamber enlargement and/or pericardial effusion; blunting of the right and left costophrenic sulci with pleural[] It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with rift valley fever.[] […] possibility whenever a patient has visited or resides in an endemic coccidioidal area and has a history of fever, skin rash, persistent pulmonary symptoms, bone pain, headache, or confusion[]

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