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89 Possible Causes for Confusion, Prominent Sulci

  • Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[academic.oup.com] Radiologic findings of necrosis and liquefaction due to hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis may be confused with brain abcess.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We present a case involving an 85-year-old man with acute confusion and new onset seizure following a 1-week history of respiratory prodrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    There was complete resolution of cerebral edema in all patients and mild interval prominence of the cerebral sulci, which can indicate cerebral volume loss, in three out of[bloodjournal.org] The patient was initially presented with a 4-day history of confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with headache and confusion and bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    This often involves confusion, short-term memory loss/forgetfulness, trouble paying attention, changes in mood, and a lack of interest in daily activities.[my.clevelandclinic.org] NPH is suggested when ventricular dilation is out of proportion to the prominence of the sulci, but this is a subjective call.[docneuro.com] The symptoms are sometimes confused with those of Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.[cna-ca.com]

  • Citrullinemia Type 2

    B, Contrast-enhanced axial CT scan shows prominent cingulate gyri atrophy and ulegyric changes in the frontal lobes.[ajnr.org] Characteristic features include confusion, abnormal behaviors (such as aggression, irritability, and hyperactivity), seizures, and coma.[treatable-id.org] […] characterized clinically by adult onset (20 and 50 years of age), recurrent episodes of hyperammonemia and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as nocturnal delirium, confusion[orpha.net]

  • Alcohol Dementia

    The CT showed prominent sulci and gyri with deep white matter changes. There were no other abnormalities.[gponline.com] Objects seen in dim light may be particularly terrifying, and the people become extremely confused.[merckmanuals.com] Signs and Symptoms Confusion may be the most obvious early symptom of dementia, but this confusion is also accompanied by obvious memory problems.[verywellmind.com]

  • AIDS-associated Meningoencephalitis

    MRI of the brain showed some effacement of cortical sulci, rendering the vessels prominent, with increased T2-weighted signal diffusely scattered throughout both hemispheres[cid.oxfordjournals.org] Rapid neurologic decline (hemiplegia, visual field defects, ataxia, aphasia) HIV Encephalopathy Progressive memory loss, depression, movement disorders CMV encephalitis Confusion[learningradiology.com] Contact your health care provider if you have headaches, a stiff neck, vision problems, confusion, nausea, or vomiting.[aidsinfonet.org]

  • Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

    B, Corresponding FLAIR image shows marked prominence of ventricles and sulci for the patient’s age.[ajnr.org] She was mildly confused, with left-sided hyperreflexia, a wide-based gait, and intention tremor in her left upper limb.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] He was noted to be increasingly confused and a subsequent MRI showed extensive bilateral posterior cortical changes consistent with cytotoxic oedema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    SSPE should not be confused with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis which has a similar cause but very different timing and course.[en.wikipedia.org] They can range from hyperintensities in the parietal and occipital region, brain stem lesions, and marked atrophy, causing prominence of sulci.[cureus.com] The early stages of SSPE are subtle and often confused with other issues.[sciencebasedmedicine.org]

  • Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    CT head showed prominent sulci suggestive of cerebral atrophy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The following day, the patient returned to the emergency department by ambulance with fever, confusion, agitation, and a severe headache, for which he was admitted.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] They may become confused and sleepy and may have seizures. The infection can progress rapidly, causing death within 10 days.[merckmanuals.com]

  • Coccidioidomycosis

    […] pulmonary vascularity; increased heart size suggesting diffuse chamber enlargement and/or pericardial effusion; blunting of the right and left costophrenic sulci with pleural[hcplive.com] It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with rift valley fever.[icd9data.com] […] possibility whenever a patient has visited or resides in an endemic coccidioidal area and has a history of fever, skin rash, persistent pulmonary symptoms, bone pain, headache, or confusion[ajronline.org]

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