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322 Possible Causes for Confusion, Tryptophan Increased

  • Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Benzodiazepine-like compounds have been detected at increased levels as well as abnormalities in the GABA neurotransmission system.[en.wikipedia.org] Extreme confusion, along with sleepiness and/or an agitated mood, are symptoms of a condition called hepatic encephalopathy.[catie.ca] If you are not acting like yourself, if you are confused, or if you are very sleepy, you should be taken to the emergency room immediately.[hepatitis.va.gov]

  • Urinary Tract Infection

    IDO expression is increased during Escherichia coli urinary tract infection (UTI).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Acute confusion is a common symptom of physical illness in the older patient. In the majority, it is transient and resolves on treatment of precipitants.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Some older adults with a UTI also develop confusion. The tricky part Some of these UTI symptoms are similar to the symptoms of other conditions common in older people.[health.harvard.edu]

  • Hyponatremia

    The administration of antegrade single-shot, up to two liters, histidine-tryptophane-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution for adequate electromechanical cardiac arrest and myocardial[cardiothoracicsurgery.biomedcentral.com] Moderate - personality change, muscle cramps and weakness, confusion, ataxia. Severe - drowsiness.[patient.info] A 41 year old Jordanian gentleman known case of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with vomiting, decreased oral intake followed by confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Delirium

    Serum tryptophan levels were increased with supplementation, but resultant serotonin and melatonin levels were not significantly different from that for placebo.[doi.org] Confusion, introduced by French workers during the second half of the century, referred to a syndrome wider than (but including) delirium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] To develop and validate a new standardized confusion assessment method (CAM) that enables nonpsychiatric clinicians to detect delirium quickly in high-risk settings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Alzheimer Disease

    Cerebrospinal analysis was consistent with AD pattern, with decreased Aβ42 and increased Tau and phospho-Tau.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We would like to discuss the confusing features of atypical AD that mimic other dementias.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The goals of treatment are: Slow the progression of the disease (although this is difficult to do) Manage symptoms, such as behavior problems, confusion, and sleep problems[nlm.nih.gov]

  • Acute Amphetamine Intoxication

    5-HT1A receptor activity (like lithium, meperidine, or tryptophan), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) with the ingestion[calsprogram.org] […] chills; nausea or vomiting; evidence of weight loss; psychomotor agitation or retardation; muscular weakness, respiratory depression, chest pain, or cardiac arrhythmias; and confusion[dsm.wikia.com] The length and severity of the depression is related to how much and how often amphetamines were used. craving exhaustion depression mental confusion restlessness and insomnia[erowid.org]

  • Migraine

    Tryptophan depletion increases nausea, headache and photophobia in migraine sufferers. Cephalalgia 2006 ; 26: 1225 – 33. Google Scholar SAGE Journals ISI 30.[doi.org] A middle-aged man presented with intermittent episodes of a brief sensation of explosion in the head, visual flashing, vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, confusion, ataxia,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The ACC plays an important role in the frontal attentional control system and acute confusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Dementia

    In Alzheimer's dementia, there are reduced levels of serotonin and its precursors such as tryptophan [ 5 ].[doi.org] Treating conditions that can lead to confusion often greatly improve mental function.[medlineplus.gov] A widely used screening tool is the Confusion Assessment Method.[health.harvard.edu]

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    IL-1β also increases brain tryptophan concentrations and the rate of 5- hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism, which may further activate the HPA axis [ 154 ].[doi.org] […] any four of a number of characteristic symptoms, defined as mild fever, sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain and weakness, joint pain, headache, sleep disorders, confusion[britannica.com] For centuries its confusing array of features has been attributed to numerous environmental, metabolic, infectious, immunologic, and psychiatric disturbances.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    These findings suggest that increased tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the nervous system may be responsible for the neurologic dysfunctions observed in humans with acute[science.sciencemag.org] RESULTS: All patients identified prodromal symptoms that began days prior to acute severe pain; the most common included confusion ("brain fog"), irritability, and fatigue[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] weeks, neurological symptoms (muscular weakness, sensory loss or convulsions) and psychological symptoms (irritability, anxiety, auditory or visual hallucinations, mental confusion[orpha.net]

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