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88 Possible Causes for Cotton Wool Spots, Headache, Somnolence

  • Multiple Myeloma

    A 72-year-old man, who had been in complete remission from multiple myeloma for 1 year after treatment that included lenalidomide, presented with confusion, headache, nausea[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Patients may report headaches and somnolence, and they may bruise easily and have hazy vision.[emedicine.medscape.com] CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: Herein, we describe an extraordinary rare case of multiple myeloma with initial presentation of a left sphenoid neoplasm resulting in left-sided headache[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Malignant Hypertension

    A 62-year-old man with a history of hypertension was referred secondary to bilateral temporal scotomas and persistent headache for 3 days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Symptoms and signs of chronic kidney disease may develop (eg, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, somnolence or confusion), as may signs of end-organ damage secondary to[msdmanuals.com] Cotton-wool spots, or cytoid bodies, are not exudates, but rather are retinal infarcts. Hypertensive optic neuropathy is a late finding.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    The patient was noted to be taking amitriptyline for migraine headache prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Neither patient exhibited daytime somnolence, although both were subsequently found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The tip-off is six or more peripapillary cotton-wool spots [ Fig. 1 ].[aao.org]

  • Preeclampsia

    The patient may experience severe headaches; pain in the stomach, dizziness and shortness of breath.[symptoma.com] […] posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 後頭部可逆性白質脳症 PRES posterior urethral valve 後部尿道弁 posthepatitic 肝炎後の postinfectious glomerulonephritis 感染後糸球体腎炎 postirradiation somnolence[jpeds.or.jp] This ischemic state can manifest as reduced arteriolar caliber and arteriovenous ratio, retinal haemorrhages, oedema and cotton wool spots secondary to arteriolar damage,[eyewiki.aao.org]

  • Brain Abscess

    A man died 72 hours after suffering crippling headaches when doctors failed to diagnose a deadly infection.[dailymail.co.uk] Fundus examination revealed a few microaneurysms at the macula, a few cotton wool spots, and mild arteriolar attenuation in both the eyes.[ijri.org] Abstract A 24-year-old man was admitted with sudden severe headache.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Polyarteritis Nodosa

    A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In the posterior pole, this may manifest as hypertensive retinopathy replete with macular star formation, cotton-wool spots, and intraretinal hemorrhage in patients with renal[aao.org] Neurologic manifestations resolved with treatment including corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide; however, persistent fevers, rash, and headaches interfered with attempts[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

  • Papilledema

    Abstract Headaches associated with papilledema may be both life-threatening as well as vision-threatening.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Pertinent questioning should include inquiries regarding excessive daytime somnolence and restless, noisy sleep.[jamanetwork.com] wool spots In chronic phase , optic disc elevation and blurred margins, but no hemorrhages or cotton wool spots In atrophic phase (optic nerve axons have died), optic disc[kellogg.umich.edu]

  • Susac Syndrome

    Headache is estimated to affect up to 80% of Susac syndrome patients, but the relevance of headache characteristics and profile is not yet clear.[mdpi.com] We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who started with a diffuse headache, puerile behavior, bradylalia and somnolence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Retinal edema and cotton-wool spots were observed. Fluorescein angiography showed bilateral peripheral occlusive arterial vasculopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Hypertensive Crisis

    Headache was the most common symptom (54.5%), followed by dizziness (45.5%), nausea/vomiting (36.4%) and chest pain (29.1%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Onset: 1 - 2 min Duration: 4 - 12 h Adverse effects: Na retention, hyperglycemia, tachycardia, palpitations, chest pains, sedation & somnolence Oral Medications: Clonidine[enotes.tripod.com] A dilated fundus examination showed improvement in hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots.[reviewofoptometry.com]

  • Essential Hypertension

    Our cases showed arteriolar involvement and clinical symptoms characterized by headaches, dysesthesias, fleeting paralysis, personality changes, intellectual impairment and[annals.org] […] sympathetic nervous system discharges that directly elevate BP. 333,334 Poorer quality of sleep and shorter sleep periods may play a reinforcing role in the fatigue and daytime somnolence[hyper.ahajournals.org] We describe a case of bilateral papillophlebitis with disc edema, scattered cotton-wool spots, flame-shaped hemorrhages, and exudates around the optic discs and in the macula[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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