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96 Possible Causes for Cranial Nerve Involvement, Hyperreflexia, Long Tract Signs

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    […] remains normal Physical exam neck ptosis (neck drop) due to neck extensor weakness manual muscle testing elicits muscle cramping upper motor neuron (UMN) signs spasticity hyperreflexia[] Diagnosis Electrodiagnostic tests MRI of the brain and, if no cranial nerve involvement, cervical spine Laboratory tests to check for other, treatable causes Diagnosis of[] The upper motor signs include spasticity, hyperreflexia and weakness. The lower motor signs include amyotrophy, weakness and fasciculations.[]

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Irritative or obstructive bladder symptoms, as a result of spinal lesions causing detrusor hyperreflexia and incomplete bladder emptying, can be treated with oral anticholinergic[] Symptoms may be sensory or motor or mixed, including cranial nerve involvement, e.g. trigeminal neuralgia or optic neuritis .[]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty[] Symptoms may be sensory or motor or mixed, including cranial nerve involvement, e.g. trigeminal neuralgia or optic neuritis .[]

  • Hemiparesis

    Strength changes will be investigated by measuring muscle hypertrophy, hyperreflexia, and passive stiffness.[] Long-tract signs included an equivocal right toe and a down-going left toe. She walked towards her mother with a slight limp favoring the right side.[] Conclusion: This is the first reported case of multiple cranial nerve involvement in a case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy.[]

  • Spastic Paraplegia

    People with this condition can also experience exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), ankle spasms, high-arched feet (pes cavus), and reduced bladder control.[] nerve involvement.[] HSP. 9 Important negative findings on examination are normal cranial nerve function and no evidence of corticobulbar tract involvement.[]

  • Myelopathy

    […] depending on the level of the lesion and include local pain , stiffness, and impaired sensation, hypotonia , and hyporeflexia at the level of the lesion, and spasticity and hyperreflexia[] Physical examination commonly elicits long tract signs such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, and abnormal reflexes such as Babinski or Hoffman's sign.[] The two conditions can mimic each other quite closely clinically, provided the neuropathy has not (yet) involved the cranial nerves, and every effort must be made to avoid[]

  • Pseudobulbar Palsy

    […] disease of middle age, characterized by bilateral spasticity of the facial and deglutitive muscles, resulting in dysarthria, dysphonia, dysphagia, drooling, facial weakness, hyperreflexia[] Strangled, effortful voice. la la la is forced, slow, clumsy Emotions - labile Other - bilateral upper motor neuron (long tract) limb signs.[] This is in contrast to bulbar palsy , which is a lower motor neurone syndrome involving the lowermost cranial nerves.[]

  • Polyneuritis

    Our patient presented with polyneuritis cranialis with limb hyperreflexia.[] One syndrome described by Garcin was a step-by-step ipsilateral involvement of all 12 cranial nerves unilaterally, without the rise of intracranial pressure and long-tract[] The commonest cranial nerve involved is trigeminal nerve, followed closely by facial nerve.[]

  • Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Patients with chronic spinal cord lesions above T-6 are particularly at risk for this response: 85 % will display autonomic hyperreflexia at some time during the course of[] In the under 8 age group especially, there is a high proportion of missed craniocervical injuries with/ without associated cranial nerve involvement. plain film imaging of[] Autonomic hyperreflexia occurs because nerve messages that were once able to go up the spinal cord to the brain are blocked.[]

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Hyperreflexia does not exclude GBS or one of its variants [18].[] tract signs pharyngeal-cervical-brachial arm weakness, dysphagia and facial weakness pandysautonomia diarrhoea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, ileus, orthostatic hypotension[] Redefining the Guillain-Barré spectrum in children: neuroimaging findings of cranial nerve involvement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Apr;32(4):639-42. PMID: 21292802 .[]

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