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100 Possible Causes for Cranial Nerve Involvement, Hyperreflexia, Long Tract Signs

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    […] remains normal Physical exam neck ptosis (neck drop) due to neck extensor weakness manual muscle testing elicits muscle cramping upper motor neuron (UMN) signs spasticity hyperreflexia[] Diagnosis Electrodiagnostic tests MRI of the brain and, if no cranial nerve involvement, cervical spine Laboratory tests to check for other, treatable causes Diagnosis of[] The upper motor signs include spasticity, hyperreflexia and weakness. The lower motor signs include amyotrophy, weakness and fasciculations.[]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty[] Examples of common clinical features include 23,24 : brainstem and cranial nerve involvement: optic neuritis internuclear ophthalmoplegia (often bilateral) trigeminal neuralgia[]

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Irritative or obstructive bladder symptoms, as a result of spinal lesions causing detrusor hyperreflexia and incomplete bladder emptying, can be treated with oral anticholinergic[] Examples of common clinical features include 23,24 : brainstem and cranial nerve involvement: optic neuritis internuclear ophthalmoplegia (often bilateral) trigeminal neuralgia[] However, a few radiological cases have documented an involvement of peripheral cranial nerves, within the subarachnoid space, in MS patients.[]

  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    7 Normal 7 M 4 Ataxia Hyperreflexia Cerebellum involvement MP 5 Days, OP 2 Weeks 6 Normal 8 F 5 Ataxia Hyperreflexia Brainstem involvement MP 5 Days, OP 2 Weeks 8 Normal[] Neurologic examination showed long tract signs in 83.3%, ataxia in 50% and altered consciousness in 50% of patients.[] In adults, encephalopathy is less frequent and the clinical presentation is usually dominated by long tract involvement.[]

  • Spastic Paraplegia

    On neurological examination, he showed hyperreflexia, spasticity, and weakness in the lower extremities and bilateral Babinski reflexes.[] tract signs, facial dysmorphism and adducted thumbs.[] nerve involvement.[]

  • Hemiparesis

    In this case report, we present the case of a patient with multiple cranial nerve involvement and right sided hemiparesis due to Hashimoto's encephalopathy.[] tract signs are an uncommon initial presentation in cerebellopontine angle epidermoids.[] Strength changes will be investigated by measuring muscle hypertrophy, hyperreflexia, and passive stiffness.[]

  • Polyneuritis

    Our patient presented with polyneuritis cranialis with limb hyperreflexia.[] One syndrome described by Garcin was a step-by-step ipsilateral involvement of all 12 cranial nerves unilaterally, without the rise of intracranial pressure and long-tract[] In these, cranial nerve involvement was the presenting feature of lymphoma, and lesions at other sites were inconspicuous until necropsy.[]

  • Myelopathy

    Clinical hyperreflexia was tested at the MCP joint, using a six-axis load cell.[] Physical examination commonly elicits long tract signs such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, and abnormal reflexes such as Babinski or Hoffman's sign.[] The two conditions can mimic each other quite closely clinically, provided the neuropathy has not (yet) involved the cranial nerves, and every effort must be made to avoid[]

  • Pseudobulbar Palsy

    […] disease of middle age, characterized by bilateral spasticity of the facial and deglutitive muscles, resulting in dysarthria, dysphonia, dysphagia, drooling, facial weakness, hyperreflexia[] Strangled, effortful voice. la la la is forced, slow, clumsy Emotions - labile Other - bilateral upper motor neuron (long tract) limb signs.[] This is in contrast to bulbar palsy , which is a lower motor neurone syndrome involving the lowermost cranial nerves.[]

  • Myelitis

    The patient with detrusor hyperreflexia had an unrecordable CMCT-TA.[] The symptoms and signs depend on the level of the spinal cord affected and the extent of involvement of the long tracts.[] The cranial nerves were involved in 6 patients and 4 required mechanical ventilation.[]

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