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97 Possible Causes for Cranial Nerve Involvement, Hyperreflexia, Long Tract Signs

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Diagnosis Electrodiagnostic tests MRI of the brain and, if no cranial nerve involvement, cervical spine Laboratory tests to check for other, treatable causes Diagnosis of[] […] remains normal Physical exam neck ptosis (neck drop) due to neck extensor weakness manual muscle testing elicits muscle cramping upper motor neuron (UMN) signs spasticity hyperreflexia[] The upper motor signs include spasticity, hyperreflexia and weakness. The lower motor signs include amyotrophy, weakness and fasciculations.[]

  • Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Affected individuals may have tremors, muscle stiffness (spasticity), exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), weakness or partial paralysis of the muscles of the limbs, difficulty[] Symptoms may be sensory or motor or mixed, including cranial nerve involvement, e.g. trigeminal neuralgia or optic neuritis .[]

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Symptoms may be sensory or motor or mixed, including cranial nerve involvement, e.g. trigeminal neuralgia or optic neuritis .[] Irritative or obstructive bladder symptoms, as a result of spinal lesions causing detrusor hyperreflexia and incomplete bladder emptying, can be treated with oral anticholinergic[]

  • Hemiparesis

    Strength changes will be investigated by measuring muscle hypertrophy, hyperreflexia, and passive stiffness.[] Long-tract signs included an equivocal right toe and a down-going left toe. She walked towards her mother with a slight limp favoring the right side.[] Conclusion: This is the first reported case of multiple cranial nerve involvement in a case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy.[]

  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    7 Normal 7 M 4 Ataxia Hyperreflexia Cerebellum involvement MP 5 Days, OP 2 Weeks 6 Normal 8 F 5 Ataxia Hyperreflexia Brainstem involvement MP 5 Days, OP 2 Weeks 8 Normal[] Neurologic examination showed long tract signs in 83.3%, ataxia in 50% and altered consciousness in 50% of patients.[] CLINICAL FEATURES • Other common neurologic signs of ADEM include: 1. Long tract pyramidal signs 2. Acute hemiparesis 3. Cerebellar ataxia 4.[]

  • Spastic Paraplegia

    People with this condition can also experience exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), ankle spasms, high-arched feet (pes cavus), and reduced bladder control.[] nerve involvement.[] HSP. 9 Important negative findings on examination are normal cranial nerve function and no evidence of corticobulbar tract involvement.[]

  • Polyneuritis

    Our patient presented with polyneuritis cranialis with limb hyperreflexia.[] One syndrome described by Garcin was a step-by-step ipsilateral involvement of all 12 cranial nerves unilaterally, without the rise of intracranial pressure and long-tract[] The commonest cranial nerve involved is trigeminal nerve, followed closely by facial nerve.[]

  • Pseudobulbar Palsy

    […] disease of middle age, characterized by bilateral spasticity of the facial and deglutitive muscles, resulting in dysarthria, dysphonia, dysphagia, drooling, facial weakness, hyperreflexia[] Strangled, effortful voice. la la la is forced, slow, clumsy Emotions - labile Other - bilateral upper motor neuron (long tract) limb signs.[] This is in contrast to bulbar palsy , which is a lower motor neurone syndrome involving the lowermost cranial nerves.[]

  • Myelopathy

    Clinical hyperreflexia was tested at the MCP joint, using a six-axis load cell.[] Physical examination commonly elicits long tract signs such as spasticity, hyperreflexia, and abnormal reflexes such as Babinski or Hoffman's sign.[] The two conditions can mimic each other quite closely clinically, provided the neuropathy has not (yet) involved the cranial nerves, and every effort must be made to avoid[]

  • Myelitis

    The cranial nerves were involved in 6 patients and 4 required mechanical ventilation.[] The symptoms and signs depend on the level of the spinal cord affected and the extent of involvement of the long tracts.[] The patient with detrusor hyperreflexia had an unrecordable CMCT-TA.[]

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