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10 Possible Causes for Deep White Matter Changes, Dementia, Disorganized Slow Background Activity

  • Stroke

    Early features include: loss of grey-white matter differentiation, and hypoattenuation of deep nuclei: lentiform nucleus changes seen as early as 1 hour after occlusion, visible[radiopaedia.org] Stroke is a strong, independent, and potentially modifiable risk factor for all-cause dementia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We increase understanding of the causes of cerebrovascular disease and improve the prevention of stroke and vascular dementia in routine clinical practice.[ndcn.ox.ac.uk]

  • Metabolic Encephalopathy

    white matter changes may be seen, with the appearance of hyperintensity on T2 sequences in the region of internal capsule, corona radiata, and splenium of corpus callosum[neurologyindia.com] The neurological disease complex associated with virus infection occurs in a large proportion of infected patients and is commonly referred to as HIV-1 associated dementia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Infection of the nervous system by HIV-1 commonly causes a broad range of cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities called, in its most severe form, HIV-1-associated dementia[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Dementia

    It may be particularly related to frontal deep white matter lesions. 16 Cognitive and behavioral changes in SVD are due to disruption of the frontal cortico-subcortical circuit[doi.org] […] as a public health priority; increasing awareness of dementia and establishing dementia-friendly initiatives; reducing the risk of dementia; diagnosis, treatment and care[who.int] Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have dementia.[web.archive.org]

  • Toxic Encephalopathy

    white matter changes may be seen, with the appearance of hyperintensity on T2 sequences in the region of internal capsule, corona radiata, and splenium of corpus callosum[neurologyindia.com] , and alcoholic dementia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] What Is Dementia From Toxic Substances?[dementia.org]

  • Hyponatremia

    In the brain MRI, millimeter-sized chronic microangiopathic ischemic signal changes were observed in the periventricular deep white matter; no mass image was seen in the pituitary[reumatologiaclinica.org] Independent of adjusting factors, hyponatremia patients had 2.36-fold higher chances of suffering dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia, than the[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Stroke is notorious for doubling the risk of suffering dementia (post-stroke dementia), including both AD and non-AD dementia[ 37 ].[journals.plos.org]

  • Meningoencephalitis

    Nevertheless, autopsy of the patient revealed frank ischemic changes (subacute infarcts) in the deep hemispheric white matter ( Fig 3 G ).[ajnr.org] We illustrated a 53-year-old man diagnosed with dementia. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies disclosed meningoencephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] HIV-associated dementia is the principal CNS manifestation of chronic HIV infection.[academic.oup.com]

  • Limbic Encephalitis

    Three patients without temporal–limbic MRI findings had white matter abnormalities in other regions: 1 multifocal, 1 diffuse, and 1 perithalamic and deep white matter changes[doi.org] An electroencephalogram showed disorganization and slowing of background activity. Antiepileptic drugs were ineffective.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Most diagnostic imagers are familiar with the classic patterns of altered metabolism seen in Alzheimer disease, frontal temporal dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Infantile Symmetrical Thalamic Degeneration

    Brain MRI showed deep white matter changes with mild cerebellar atrophy. Skin biopsy for electron microscopy showed lipofuscine inclusion bodies.[alliedacademies.org] In milder cases, they included disorganization of the background activity and focal or generalized delta-theta waves ( Fig. 15.2 ).[neupsykey.com] .: Severe dementia associated with bilateral symmetrical degeneration of the thalamus. Brain 62, 157–171 (1939) Google Scholar Trump, B. F., Valigorsky, J. M., Dees, J.[link.springer.com]

  • Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia

    Deep grey matter nuclei were affected in one patient. DTI revealed lower FA with higher RD in most of the measured white matter regions and tracts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In the second to fifth years of life, multifocal epileptiform discharges superimposed on diffuse slow background activity constituted the usual abnormality during wakefulness[indiana.pure.elsevier.com] Complications of Nonketotic Hyperglycemia are: Progressive weakness and confusion Delirium and hallucination Kidney failure Alzheimer's dementia can worsen in individuals[dovemed.com]

  • Brain Calcification Type Rajab

    There is little or no white matter dystrophic change.[docslide.net] EEG showed disorganized background, and generalized paroxysmal activity of fast spike-slow wave complexes.[frontiersin.org] Fahr’s syndrome presenting with pure and progressive presenile dementia. Neurol Sci. 2005; 26:367-9. Manyam BV, Walters AS, Keller IA, Ghobrial M.[rarediseases.org]

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