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20 Possible Causes for Dyspnea at Rest, Pulsus Alternans, Summation Gallop

  • Congestive Heart Failure

    Initially dyspnea occurs only at exertion. Later on orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea also develop. Later on dyspnea occurs even at rest.[symptoma.com] alternans (alternating large and small pulse pressures) and a raised JVP.[patient.info] When congestive heart failure worsens, fluid backs up into the lungs and interferes with oxygen getting into the blood, causing dyspnea at rest and at night (orthopnea).[emedicinehealth.com]

  • Pulmonary Edema

    Noisy respiratory efforts often make cardiac auscultation difficult; a summation gallop—merger of 3rd (S 3 ) and 4th (S 4 ) heart sounds—may be present.[merckmanuals.com] High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a form of high altitude illness characterized by cough, dyspnea upon exertion progressing to dyspnea at rest and eventual death, seen[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Class IV is defined by symptoms at rest or with any physical activity.[radcliffecardiology.com]

  • Acute Myocardial Infarction

    After 48h following the accident, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, with severe dyspnea at rest, tachycardia, and increasing chest pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Myocardial Infarction

    History The patient’s history is critical in diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) and sometimes may provide the only clues that lead to the diagnosis in the initial phases of the patient presentation. Patients with typical acute MI usually present with chest pain and may have prodromal symptoms of fatigue, chest[…][emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Cardiomyopathy

    There are five useful clinical signs to establish the presence and severity of cardiomyopathy: general appearance (cachexia and dyspnea at rest indicate severe impairment)[clevelandclinicmeded.com] […] mitral valve cusp towards the septum LVOT pressure gradient via doppler echocardiography Provocation tests (see below) are obligatory if no obstruction is discernible at rest[amboss.com] Exercise testing Used for risk assessment and evaluation of LVOT Treadmill or bicycle exercise test Clinical observation for development of symptoms (e.g., dyspnea , palpitations[amboss.com]

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    At presentation she had dyspnea at rest, orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.[doi.org] Pulsus alternans is an infrequent, complex pathophysiologic sign often associated with severe heart failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] There are five useful clinical signs to establish the presence and severity of cardiomyopathy: general appearance (cachexia and dyspnea at rest indicate severe impairment)[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

  • Secondary Cardiomyopathy

    Case presentation A 38-year-old Hispanic male presented with progressive dyspnea at rest since the morning, which became worse with exertion and lying flat.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com] There are five useful clinical signs to establish the presence and severity of cardiomyopathy: general appearance (cachexia and dyspnea at rest indicate severe impairment)[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

  • Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    There are five useful clinical signs to establish the presence and severity of cardiomyopathy: general appearance (cachexia and dyspnea at rest indicate severe impairment)[clevelandclinicmeded.com] They usually get progressively worse, if not treated Shortness of breath is initially related to physical activity and at later stages, may be present even at rest Difficulty[dovemed.com] […] lying flat on the bed (orthopnea) Gasping spells in the middle of the night (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea) Chest pain or pressure may be present along with the above symptoms[dovemed.com]

  • Acute Myocarditis

    Case 1: A 48-years-old, previously healthy male patient admitted to our clinic with complaints of acute onset of rest dyspnea and orthopnea, started the day before.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

    There are five useful clinical signs to establish the presence and severity of cardiomyopathy: general appearance (cachexia and dyspnea at rest indicate severe impairment)[clevelandclinicmeded.com] Leg elevation promptly reversed the pulsus alternans, and the echocardiographic abnormality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Application of a small dose of glyceryl trinitrate paste (0.25 in) resulted in severe left ventricular dysfunction with the appearance of pulsus alternans in a patient with[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]