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1,820 Possible Causes for Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy, Retinal Pigmentation

  • Tuberculosis

    Prototypical early granulomas formed that involved the retinal vasculature and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid complex; characteristic locations for human ocular TB.[biorxiv.org] Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae to study the early pathogenesis of ocular TB and found hematogenous bacterial seeding of the eye despite a functional blood retinal[biorxiv.org]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Atypical presentation of CSC has widespread degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or bullous retinal detachment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Ocular examination revealed bilateral salt-and-pepper retinopathy and a serous detachment in the macula of the left eye.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), fluorescein leakage intensity on fluorescein angiography, elevation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lesions at leakage sites, focal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Optical coherence tomography showed a large hemorrhagic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment and polypoidal lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] (L368Efs*4) variants in SPATA7 manifest as an unusual RP phenotype in this case, showing extensive choroidal sclerosis and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy with evidence[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis

    Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Retinal Laser Treatment

    […] selectively targeted, hence the term selective retinal pigment epithelium laser therapy (SRT).[clinicaltrials.gov] It is a very high-energy bright light that, when directed and focussed on to a retina, is absorbed by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).[retinadoctor.com.au] pigment epithelium attributed to excessive laser settings.[journals.lww.com]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Leber Congenital Amaurosis 16

    They hypothesize that the mutated KCNJ13 gene may be associated with a potassium channel defect in the retinal pigment epithelium, which in turn may be a cause of LCA16.[pediatrics.wisc.edu] NFL, nerve fiber layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; PR, photoreceptors; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium. F igure 2.[iovs.arvojournals.org] Kir7.1 controls the microenvironment between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and also contributes to the function of other organs such as uterus[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Retinopathy

    Preservation of the ellipsoid zone, wave-guiding cones, and retinal sensitivity within hypoautofluorescent lesions suggest that these retinal pigment epithelium changes have[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] They are associated with intraretinal hemorrhages, intra- or subretinal exudates and hyperpigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium.[thieme-connect.com] The physical exam revealed bilateral optic atrophy, peripheral retinal bone spicule pigmentation, and absent patellar reflexes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Hydroxychloroquine

    To describe a case of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy combined with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment and evaluate possible causes of pigment epithelium detachment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Examination and multimodal imaging showed bilateral retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes in a bull's-eye distribution associated with cystoid macular edema.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The 10-2 VF mean deviation paradoxically improved, while minimal FAF alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium were found in eight eyes. mfERGs and SD-OCT were altered[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Chloroquine Retinopathy

    The major retinal findings are those of macular retinal pigment epithelial changes, narrowed retinal vessels, and scotomatous visual field defects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Chloroquine is deposited in the retinal pigment epithelium, which forms part of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] SD-OCT changes included reduction of retinal thickness, an increased area of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelial loss, development or increase of cystoid macular oedema[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy
  • Thioridazine

    Atrophy and disorganization of the photoreceptor outer segments appeared to be the initial degenerative event, followed by loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Nummular areas of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy separated by relatively intact pigment epithelium are found in the midretinal periphery, with sparing of central vision[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Discrete nummular areas of loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) extended from the posterior pole to the midperiphery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Early Salt and Pepper Retinopathy

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