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34 Possible Causes for Edema, Metabolic Encephalopathy, Nocturnal Leg Cramp

  • Chronic Kidney Insufficiency

    Hypertension and pulmonary edema are manifestations of severe volume overload. The most dangerous form of volume overload is pulmonary edema.[] encephalopathy).[] Hypertension, pulmonary edema and peripheral edema are results of over-hydration. Water and salt excretion are thereby inextricably linked.[]

  • Hyponatremia

    The brain’s adaptive response to protect itself from edema occurs over several days.[] Arieff AI et al . (1995) Age, gender, and vasopressin affect survival and brain adaptation in rats with metabolic encephalopathy . Am J Physiol 268 : R1143–R1152 16.[] Bryan Young, Metabolic Encephalopathies, Disorders of Consciousness, 10.1016/S0072-9752(07)01707-1, (115-166), (2008).[]

  • Electrolytes Abnormal

    No lower extremity edema is present. Neurologic examination reveals no focal deficits.[] Tachypnoea Reduced vital capacity Respiratory failure CNS Lethargy Neuropathy Encephalopathy Seizures Coma Others Skeletal demineralization Table VI - Clinical manifestations[] A few years ago, researchers in the United Kingdom found that 300 mg of supplemental magnesium reduced nighttime or nocturnal leg cramps in individuals who suffered chronic[]

  • Graves Disease

    At autopsy the significant positive macroscopic findings were confined to the lungs (acute pulmonary edema) and thyroid (diffusely enlarged).[] INTRODUCTION: The presence of bilateral exophthalmos and palpebral, periorbital edema associated with hyperthyroidism is most often considered as an initial sign of Graves[] Case presentation An 11-year-old girl presented with gastrointestinal symptoms while hypertension, edema and abdominal pain were noticed on clinical examination.[]

  • Hypocalcemia

    We describe the case of an 86-year-old woman with moderate renal failure, who presented pulmonary edema and severe myocardial dysfunction due to hypocalcemia.[] Other causes of toxic-metabolic encephalopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with tetany, particularly if the ionized calcium[] Hypercalcemia: Volume overload and pulmonary edema may develop with overly aggressive fluid management.[]

  • Chronic Alcoholism

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) displayed vasogenic edema at the bilateral posterior temporal and parieto-occipital lobes and cerebellum.[] When detected, brain scyllo-inositol takes part in a metabolic encephalopathy since it is associated with reduced N-acetylaspartate and increased creatine.[] European workers 9 10 11 12 have described an acute muscular syndrome characterized by muscle aching, tenderness and edema in which hyperpotassemia, increased serum glutamic[]

  • Hypoglycemia

    […] fatty acid concentrations, hypotonia, hepatomegaly with microvesicular fat accumulation, elevated plasma activities of both liver and muscle enzymes, and frequently cerebral edema[] Patient improved with acute management of metabolic crisis, carnitine supplementation and corn starch therapy with reversal of encephalopathy, reduction in hepatomegaly, maintenance[] ( E73 - E74 ) specific findings indicating disorder of lipid metabolism ( E75.- ) Use Additional code to identify any retained foreign body, if applicable ( Z18.- ) Encephalopathy[]

  • Respiratory Alkalosis

    Edema, - P regnancy - P neumonia - P rogesterone - C irrhosis - Aspirin toxicity (early) BP BP Urine Cl Renin 20 Vomit: - Anorexia - Pyloric Stenosis - Hyperemesis gravid.[] This can be seen in the following settings: Acute intoxication with narcotics or other sedative medications Severe metabolic encephalopathy Obesity hypoventilation Severe[] , such as psychophysical stresses (anxiety, pain and fear), noxious drugs (analeptics, propanidid, salicylic acid), and pulmonary stimuli (embolism, pneumonia, asthma or edema[]

  • Vitamin Deficiency

    Deficiencies 260-269 Thiamine and niacin deficiency states 265- A disease caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin b1) and characterized by polyneuritis, cardiac pathology, and edema[] Severe acute metabolic acidosis and Wernicke's encephalopathy following chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin: case report and review of the literature.[] Nocturnal leg cramps are usually observed at night or when muscles are at rest. [ Read: Vitamin C Deficiency ] 9.[]

  • Hypokalemia

    In this case report, an association of hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia that is developed due to the excessive intake of licorice is presented.[] Hypokalemia also is a contributory factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy in the setting of cirrhosis.[] There is jugular venous distension, an S3 heart sound, and 2 lower extremity pitting edema.[]

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