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17 Possible Causes for Electromyogram Abnormal, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome

  • Peripheral Neuropathy

    Gaze-evoked nystagmus is common. All patients have gait ataxia and the majority have lower limb ataxia.[] syndrome.[] Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis may be helpful in the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy.[]

  • Neuromuscular Junction Disorder

    Other motility abnormalities include saccadic dysmetria and decreased final saccadic velocity, small “quiver” eye movements, and gaze-evoked nystagmus.[4] Nystagmus occurs[] […] triggers about 30% of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome”.[] Guillain-Barré syndrome. Am Fam Physician 2004;69:2405-2410. 2. Ropper AH. The Guillain-Barré syndrome. N Engl J Med 1992;326:1130-1136. 3. Tsang RS.[]

  • Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis

    They showed general weakness, severe ataxia, bilateral dysmetria and bilateral lateral gaze limitation. And gaze-evoked nystagmus was observed in one of them.[] ; GBS GuillainBarré syndrome.[] Brain MRI revealed abnormality in the left basal ganglia, thalamus, and rightside posterior limb of the internal capsule.[]

  • Polyneuropathy

    Early ocular signs are gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus and defective ocular pursuit movements with the full range of extraocular movements.[] Postinfective polyneuritis - eg, Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sarcoidosis.[] On needle electromyogram there were few fibrillations and positive sharp waves at lower limbs (proximal and distal muscles) but rare motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) at[]

  • Progressive Bulbar Palsy

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia 1 Clinical Characteristics Ocular Features: Early manifestations include gaze-evoked nystagmus and saccadic hypermetria.[] Guillain-Barré syndrome. Post-polio syndrome. Myasthenia gravis or Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Peripheral nerve lesions, particularly due to diabetic neuropathy.[]

  • Miller-Fisher Syndrome

    Several reports document nystagmus, including gaze-evoked (6, 10, 14) dissociated abducting (6, 10, 13), convergence-retraction (10), rebound (13) and upbeat lid nystagmus[] […] with a risk of GBS. [9] Mechanism [ edit ] GuillainBarré syndrome – nerve damage The nerve dysfunction in GuillainBarré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve[] Electromyogram testing was unremarkable and showed no abnormalities in nerve conduction from the spine to the feet and hands. Fig. 2.[]

  • Machado-Joseph Disease

    The patient presented with gaze-evoked nystagmus and limitations of eye movement in all directions.[] Fulminant neuropathy with severe motor involvement that can lead to tetraplegia, often misdiagnosed as acute Guillain-Barré syndrome, has been reported in pediatric and adult[] Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and cervical spinal cord revealed no obvious abnormality despite the severe symptoms and the findings of an electromyogram.[]

  • Ataxia

    Gaze-evoked nystagmus, jerky (saccadic) pursuit and hypo/hypermetropic saccades. Dysarthria. Intention tremor. Dysmetria. Dysdiadochokinesis.[] Patients with ataxic Guillain-Barré syndrome, as well as those with Miller Fisher syndrome, have been found to carry anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies, suggesting that ataxic Guillain-Barré[] Electromyogram – Looks for muscle damage. Electrocardiogram – Checks for abnormalities in the heartbeat.[]

  • X-linked Parkinsonism-Spasticity Syndrome

    Sustained gaze-evoked nystagmus  Criteria  Gait ataxia plus at least one of features 2–4 42.  Corticospinal tract dysfunction  A. Features  1.[] Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory neuropathy.[] […] external sphincter electromyogram reflecting loss of anterior horn cells in Onuf's nucleus in the sacral cord is highly suggestive of multiple system atrophy in the appropriate[]

  • Proximal Myopathy with Extrapyramidal Signs

    Test cerebellar function during the examination of eye movements (see above), looking for saccadic dysmetria, impaired ability to hold eccentric gaze (gaze-evoked nystagmus[] This is associated with conditions such as peroneal nerve injury, fibular injury, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and prolapsed intervertebral disc.[] The electromyogram is abnormal, with myopathic features.[]