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802 Possible Causes for Epicanthal Folds, Learning Disabilities

  • Turner Syndrome

    Clinically, patients with Turner syndrome are short, and they have a small chin, prominent folds of skin at the inner corners of the eyes (epicanthal folds), low-set ears,[britannica.com] For example, Turner syndrome is a proposed etiology of the nonverbal learning disability - because of reported relative strengths in verbal skills, and relatively weaker nonverbal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] folds can be present; red-green color blindness Ears: Serous otitis media is more common [4] ; the auricles may be posteriorly rotated or low set; hearing loss due to otosclerosis[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Down Syndrome

    folds, flattened nasal bridge, broad hands with short fingers, decreased muscle tone, and by trisomy of the human chromosome numbered 21 — called also Down, Down's, trisomy[merriam-webster.com] In the United Kingdom, the psychiatry of learning disability is a specialty in its own right, but people with learning disabilities outside the UK may be under the care of[doi.org] In 1876 he specifically identified the fold of skin at the inner corner of the eyes which he described as epicanthic folds and he also noted that the ear was usually placed[intellectualdisability.info]

  • Trisomy X Syndrome

    Additional findings include the presence of epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, pes planus, pectus excavatum, clinodactyly and mandibular defects (prognathism and retrognathism[symptoma.com] […] should be able to detail the diagnosis of your learning disability, its severity, and how it limits your day-to-day functioning.[disability-benefits-help.org] Image: Epicanthal folds and hypertelorism in 2 year old girl with trisomy X.[reliawire.com]

  • Noonan Syndrome

    ., epicanthal folds, ptosis, ocular hypertelorism), and micrognathia. Individuals with Noonan syndrome often may have either pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum.[symptoma.com] disability.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] External features were hypertelorism (74%), downward sloping palpebral apertures (38%), epicanthic folds (39%) and ptosis (48%).[nature.com]

  • Williams Syndrome

    folds ) Partially missing teeth, defective tooth enamel, or small, widely spaced teeth Exams and Tests Signs include: Blood vessel narrowing including supravalvular aortic[web.archive.org] Williams syndrome and learning disability Williams syndrome affects everyone in different ways, but many people will have a learning disability.[mencap.org.uk] folds (vertical skin folds that cover the inner corners of the eyes Feeding difficulties in infancy, often leading to poor growth Shorter than average height Low body tone[my.clevelandclinic.org]

  • Klinefelter Syndrome

    folds, broad nasal bridge, low-set and malformed ears and prognathism Cardiac defects, usually patent ductus arteriosus, are present in 15-20% of cases Males have short stature[en.wikibooks.org] Learning disability; delayed speech development; behavioural problems; psychosocial disturbances.[patient.info] Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(3), 166–173. Bojesen, A., Juul, S., Birkebaek, N., & Gravholt, C. H. (2004). Increased mortality in Klinefelter syndrome.[nichd.nih.gov]

  • Mental Retardation

    ), vertical skin folds between the inner corners of the eyes and the nose (epicanthal folds), a broad nasal bridge, a long upper lip, an abnormally small lower jaw (hypoplastic[rarediseases.org] learning disabilities.[patient.info] folds at the inner corners.[cdc.gov]

  • Homocystinuria

    The patient also shows signs that had not been previously described: epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, long and flat philtrum, amimic expression and, particularly, a postural[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] CNS: general learning disability (average IQ 80; 30% have normal IQ), seizures, cerebrovascular events, psychiatric disorders [ 5 ].[patient.co.uk] CNS: general learning disability (average IQ 80; 30% have normal IQ), seizures, cerebrovascular events, psychiatric disorders [ 5 ] .[patient.info]

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    folds, a small or flat midface, a flat elongated philtrum, a thin upper lip, and a small chin.[msdmanuals.com] FAS/partial FAS may contribute to the extremely high rate of growth retardation in South Africa as a whole and is a major cause of learning disability.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] These effects can include physical, mental, behavioral and/or learning disabilities with lifelong implications and are irreversible.[phdmc.org]

  • Pallister-Killian Syndrome

    folds large ears with lobes that are thick and protrude outward.[en.wikibooks.org] Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic, genetic disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, learning disability, and epilepsy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] RESUMEN Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare, sporadic, genetic disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, learning disability, and epilepsy.[cun.es]

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