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390 Possible Causes for Epistaxis, Intracerebral Hematoma

  • Hypertension

    Hypertensive urgencies frequently present with headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) and hypertensive emergencies frequently present[dx.doi.org] hemorrhage (4.5%).[dx.doi.org] […] end-organ damage associated with hypertensive emergencies include cerebral infarction (24%), acute pulmonary edema (23%) and hypertensive encephalopathy (16%), as well as cerebral[dx.doi.org]

  • Essential Hypertension

    Dizziness, facial flushing, headache, fatigue, epistaxis, and nervousness are not caused by uncomplicated hypertension.[merckmanuals.com] There are a number of other diseases that precipitated or accelerated by hypertension such as aortic aneurysm and cerebral hemorrhage.[articledoctor.com] Examples include upper levels of stage II hypertension associated with severe headache, shortness of breath, epistaxis, or severe anxiety.[hyper.ahajournals.org]

  • Thrombocytopenia

    It presents in infancy or in neonates (in severe cases) with patients bruising easily along with further manifestations of thrombocytopenia including epistaxis, petechiae,[enerca.org] The patient died of brain herniation complicating extensive cerebral hemorrhage.[aac.asm.org] A case of massive cerebral hemorrhage in association with severe acute thrombocytopenia (4000/μ l), 90 minutes after starting treatment with abciximab, has recently been reported[revespcardiol.org]

  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    […] bilateral periorbital oedema and tense orbits in keeping with orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) shortly after presenting to the emergency department for uncontrollable epistaxis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Death commonly results from progression of the underlying disease, and associated complications (acute renal failure, intracerebral hematoma, shock, or cardiac tamponade).[emdocs.net] Clinical history can include epistaxis, gingival bleeding, haematuria, oliguria, cough, dyspnoea, fever, delirium, and coma.[bestpractice.bmj.com]

  • Hemophilia

    Recurrent, heavy nosebleeds, or epistaxis, without apparent cause are another symptom. Minor cuts that don’t clot or that stop and then start again also can occur.[hemophilia.org] The following presentations have been reported: Massive hemothorax Cerebral hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage Spinal epidural hematoma with the Brown-Sequard syndrome Hematuria[web.archive.org] Menorrhagia was predominant (13.6%) followed by epistaxis (9%), gingivorrhagia (9%), and prolonged bleeding after tooth extraction (9%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    An 11-year-old boy presented with epistaxis, petechial hemorrhages, easy bruising, and purpuric rash.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Complications include: cerebral hemorrhage hemorrhage side effects of steroid use infection (following splenectomy) return to top Resources and References Godeau B, Provan[sharinginhealth.ca] […] by extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue, mucous membranes or skin; it generates bleeding manifestations as ecchymotic lesions, petechiae of sudden onset, epistaxis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    CASE REPORT A 67-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of episodes of epistaxis and recurrent severe sinusitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Intravenous immunoglobulin in Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:2451–3.[doi.org] Upper respiratory tract: Sinus pain, serosanguineous or purulent discharge, and epistaxis may occur.[merckmanuals.com]

  • Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    The most common adverse events were headache (37%), nasopharyngitis (32%), contusion (30%), epistaxis (30%), fatigue (30%), arthralgia (25%), and diarrhea (25%).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The patient should avoid straining during defecation or coughing because both can lead to increased intracranial pressure, possibly causing cerebral hemorrhage.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com] In some instances there is oral bleeding, epistaxis, rectal bleeding or haematuria. Morbidity in ITP is usually minimal and parents need to be reassured of this.[rch.org.au]

  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Abstract: No optimal treatment modality is currently available for the treatment of recurrent epistaxis in HHT.[doi.org] hemorrhage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Both children and adults with HHT are at an increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage, embolic stroke, seizures and brain abscess if brain and lung AVMs are not detected and treated[med.unc.edu]

  • Coagulation Abnormalities

    As the platelet counts are usually 50x10 9 L -1 there is an increased incidence of bruising, epistaxis and gingival bleeding.[frca.co.uk]

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