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451 Possible Causes for Exposure to Contaminated Water

  • Typhoid Fever

    Infections can come from exposure to food or water, contaminated with S. Typhi from a person carrying the disease or fecal matter from a person with the disease.[medicaldaily.com] Salmonella is a common bacterium that causes infection in humans, usually through exposure to inadequately processed foods like chicken or eggs, contaminated water, and contact[livestrong.com]

  • Typhus

    BACKGROUND: Rickettsias cause a wide spectrum of tick-, flea-, or mite-borne infections. Rickettsial infections have no classical manifestations and can often lead to encephalitis, which can be fatal if improperly diagnosed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old male farmer was admitted to the hospital with fevers and a[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Cyclosporiasis

    A ceremonial bath (mikvah) was initially identified as a possible source of exposure to contaminated water.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] For example, exposure to contaminated water among farm workers may have been the original source in raspberry-associated outbreaks in North America.[foodpoisonjournal.com] Direct person-to-person transmission through fecal exposure is unlikely to occur with Cyclospora , and food or water contaminated with freshly excreted oocysts (e.g., by a[academic.oup.com]

  • Acute Gastroenteritis

    contaminated in food and water.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Poliovirus (PV) is typically transmitted by the fecal-oral route, which means that the risk of infection and virus distribution could be achieved by exposure to the virus[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Adenovirus Infection

    […] to water contaminated with adenovirus Adenoviruses are able to infect mucus membranes that are found in the: Respiratory tract Eyes Intestines Urinary tract Symptoms will[health.cvs.com] Intestinal tract infections usually occurs by fecal-oral contact the result of poor hand-washing or from consuming contaminated food or water symptoms may develop 3 to 10[childrenshospital.org] […] via Contaminated water Eating food contaminated by houseflies Poor hand washing habits The infection can also spread by drinking contaminated water Indirect transmission[dovemed.com]

  • Tonsillitis

    […] food and water improved sanitation Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae animal bite [3] [24] droplet contact [3] rabies [3] (fatal encephalitis) [24] Post-exposure prophylaxis [3][en.wikipedia.org] […] prophylaxis ) [3] Hepatitis A vaccine [3] [28] avoiding contaminated food/water [3] improved sanitation Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae bodily fluids [3] Vertical and sexual[en.wikipedia.org] […] nasopharyngeal carcinoma None [3] avoiding close contact with the sick Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae fecal-oral [3] [28] acute hepatitis [3] [28] Immunoglobulin ( post-exposure[en.wikipedia.org]

  • Food Poisoning

    Eggs and poultry are the most common sources of infection. [10, 5] Ingestion of contaminated water, milk, milk products, beef, fruit, vegetables, and dairy products are also[emedicine.com] Many fungi known to produce toxins, allergens, and irritant chemical compounds are usually found in large numbers in buildings with water problems and fungal contamination[doi.org] Potential sources of infection for infants with Salmonella are exposure to reptiles, riding in a shopping cart next to meat or poultry, or consuming liquid infant formula.[emedicine.com]

  • Diarrhea

    […] reduce exposure to contaminated water Treat appropriately with oral rehydration therapy and antibiotics Train health care providers and community health workers on diarrhea[cdc.gov] Diarrhea: Proven Ways to Save Lives Vaccinate for rotavirus Provide Safe water Adequate sanitation and human waste disposal Promote Handwashing with soap Breastfeeding to[cdc.gov]

  • Influenza

    To date, there have been no documented human cases of influenza caused by exposure to influenza-contaminated drinking water.[cdc.gov] Oral ingestion of contaminated water during swimming and direct intranasal or conjunctival inoculation during exposure to water are other potential modes, as is contamination[doi.org]

  • Enterococcus

    The main route of exposure to illness-causing organisms during recreation in water is through accidental ingestion of fecally contaminated water while engaging in these activities[federalregister.gov] EPA appreciates the concerns of commenters regarding human health risks of exposure to fecal contamination within mixing zones.[federalregister.gov] […] the ingestion of, or immersion in, water, such as swimming, water skiing, surfing, kayaking, or any other recreational activity where ingestion of, or immersion in, the water[federalregister.gov]

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