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768 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia

  • Writer's Cramp

    Abstract If focal dystonia affects the hand muscles writer's cramp will result, but also other types of activity when the task involves repetitive movements such as typing[] We conclude that isolated writers' cramp is a physical illness rather than a psychological disturbance, and that it is a focal dystonia.[] Focal dystonia is a perfectly valid mechanism but only explains a minority of cases.[]

  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 14

    Some patients have cognitive impairment, parkinsonism characterized by rigidity, as well as focal dystonia, axial myoclonus, facial myokymia, choreic movement of hands and[] In the first family reported, Yamashita et al 5 described axial myoclonus in some younger affected persons, while an extrapyramidal component (focal dystonia) was observed[]

  • Meige Syndrome

    Meige syndrome is a type of focal dystonia characterized by blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia.[] There is little experience with the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in focal dystonias, and reports of its use in Meige syndrome are very rare.[] The experience is however limited concerning focal dystonias and to date only a few cases of pallidal DBS in the treatment of Meige syndrome have been published.[]

  • Adult-Onset Cervical Dystonia Type DYT23

    Related phenotypes are torticollis and cerebellar atrophy Disease Ontology : 12 A focal dystonia characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of adult-onset cervical dystonia[] Focal hand dystonia is neurological in origin and is not due to normal fatigue.[] An important gene associated with Dystonia 23 is CACNA1B (Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel Subunit Alpha1 B).[]

  • Spasmodic Torticollis

    In this chapter we have described the use of integrated EMG feedback for the treatment of focal dystonia or spasmodic torticollis.[] dystonias and essential tremor.[] Abstract A genetic study of idiopathic focal dystonias was undertaken by examining 153 first‐degree relatives of 40 index patients with torticollis (14 patients), other focal[]

  • Occupational Cramps

    These results provide objective evidence of a physiological basis for the action or task-specific focal dystonias such as writer's cramp.[] Focal hand and limb dystonia usually manifests as a painless loss of muscular control in highly practiced movements.[] We retrospectively reviewed 65 patients given a diagnosis of focal dystonias of the upper extremity and describe painless manual incoordination syndromes, insidious in onset[]

  • Oromandibular Dystonia

    Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak. It is associated with bruxism.[] Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia involving the masticatory and/or tongue muscles.[] The mainstay of treatment for most focal dystonia is botulinum toxin injections.[]

  • Primary Torsion Dystonia

    With a stronger family history, a significantly lower AaO was seen in all focal dystonias.[] Forty-six of them had segmental dystonia and 59 had focal dystonia.[] focal dystonia cases.[]

  • Blepharospasm

    This is a focal dystonia appearing in adults with recurrent spasms of eye closure; the orbicularis oculi muscle contracts forcibly and involuntarily.[] Aetiology [ 1 , 2 ] Blepharospasm is a subtype of focal dystonia. Most cases are idiopathic and termed benign essential blepharospasm or primary blepharospasm.[] Aetiology [ 1, 2 ] Blepharospasm is a subtype of focal dystonia. Most cases are idiopathic and termed benign essential blepharospasm or primary blepharospasm.[]

  • Paroxysmal Exertion-Induced Dyskinesia

    […] relevant to the pathogenesis of focal dystonia.[] Eric Ahlskog, The spectrum of disorders presenting as adult-onset focal lower extremity dystonia, Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 14, 8, (613), (2008).[] Bara-Jimenez WShelton PSanger TDHallett M Sensory discrimination capabilities in patients with focal hand dystonia.[]

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