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768 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia

  • Writer's Cramp

    Abstract If focal dystonia affects the hand muscles writer's cramp will result, but also other types of activity when the task involves repetitive movements such as typing[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] We conclude that isolated writers' cramp is a physical illness rather than a psychological disturbance, and that it is a focal dystonia.[academic.oup.com] Focal dystonia is a perfectly valid mechanism but only explains a minority of cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 14

    Some patients have cognitive impairment, parkinsonism characterized by rigidity, as well as focal dystonia, axial myoclonus, facial myokymia, choreic movement of hands and[orpha.net] In the first family reported, Yamashita et al 5 described axial myoclonus in some younger affected persons, while an extrapyramidal component (focal dystonia) was observed[jnnp.bmj.com]

  • Meige Syndrome

    Meige syndrome is a type of focal dystonia characterized by blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia.[symptoma.com] There is little experience with the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in focal dystonias, and reports of its use in Meige syndrome are very rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The experience is however limited concerning focal dystonias and to date only a few cases of pallidal DBS in the treatment of Meige syndrome have been published.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Adult-Onset Cervical Dystonia Type DYT23

    Related phenotypes are torticollis and cerebellar atrophy Disease Ontology : 12 A focal dystonia characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of adult-onset cervical dystonia[malacards.org] Focal hand dystonia is neurological in origin and is not due to normal fatigue.[wikivisually.com] An important gene associated with Dystonia 23 is CACNA1B (Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel Subunit Alpha1 B).[malacards.org]

  • Spasmodic Torticollis

    In this chapter we have described the use of integrated EMG feedback for the treatment of focal dystonia or spasmodic torticollis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] dystonias and essential tremor.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Abstract A genetic study of idiopathic focal dystonias was undertaken by examining 153 first‐degree relatives of 40 index patients with torticollis (14 patients), other focal[doi.org]

  • Occupational Cramps

    These results provide objective evidence of a physiological basis for the action or task-specific focal dystonias such as writer's cramp.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Focal hand and limb dystonia usually manifests as a painless loss of muscular control in highly practiced movements.[dystoniacanada.org] We retrospectively reviewed 65 patients given a diagnosis of focal dystonias of the upper extremity and describe painless manual incoordination syndromes, insidious in onset[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Oromandibular Dystonia

    Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak. It is associated with bruxism.[en.wikipedia.org] Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia involving the masticatory and/or tongue muscles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The mainstay of treatment for most focal dystonia is botulinum toxin injections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Primary Torsion Dystonia

    With a stronger family history, a significantly lower AaO was seen in all focal dystonias.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Forty-six of them had segmental dystonia and 59 had focal dystonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] focal dystonia cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Blepharospasm

    This is a focal dystonia appearing in adults with recurrent spasms of eye closure; the orbicularis oculi muscle contracts forcibly and involuntarily.[patient.info] Aetiology [ 1 , 2 ] Blepharospasm is a subtype of focal dystonia. Most cases are idiopathic and termed benign essential blepharospasm or primary blepharospasm.[patient.info] Aetiology [ 1, 2 ] Blepharospasm is a subtype of focal dystonia. Most cases are idiopathic and termed benign essential blepharospasm or primary blepharospasm.[patient.info]

  • Paroxysmal Exertion-Induced Dyskinesia

    […] relevant to the pathogenesis of focal dystonia.[archneur.ama-assn.org] Eric Ahlskog, The spectrum of disorders presenting as adult-onset focal lower extremity dystonia, Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 14, 8, (613), (2008).[doi.org] Bara-Jimenez WShelton PSanger TDHallett M Sensory discrimination capabilities in patients with focal hand dystonia.[archneur.ama-assn.org]

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