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137 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb, Frontal Focal Spike-and-Slow-Waves

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The most common signs and symptoms in descending order are: asymmetric limb rigidity (100%), upper limb apraxia (91%), gait difficulties (89%), stimulation-sensitive focal[neuroweb.us] […] myoclonus (88%), eye movement abnormalities (particularly in later stages supranuclear horizontal or vertical gaze saccadic palsy) (78%), limb dystonia (77%), pyramidal signs[neuroweb.us]

  • Epilepsy

    Transient outbreaks of spike-slow complex waves (1-2 s) were also noted in all leads.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Neuroimaging studies were unremarkable and electroencephalograms showed high voltage 200-400uV, 2-2.5 Hz generalized spike-and-waves and polyspikes with alternating frontal[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] The diagnosis of frontal lobe epilepsy (generalized tonic-clonic seizures secondary to focal impaired awareness seizures and myoclonus) was made.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    ‘Contrary to popular folk belief, nothing should be placed in the mouth during the seizure. Severe injury could occur.’ Generalized tonic clonic seizures (grand mal seizures) are the most common and best known type of generalized seizure. They begin with stiffening of the limbs (the tonic phase), followed by jerking[…][epilepsynw.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a common form of epilepsy mainly characterized by myoclonic jerks, but affected individuals may also experience generalized tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures. Symptom onset typically occurs around puberty and although the disease persists into adulthood, patients do respond[…][symptoma.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • West Syndrome

    IARS2 encodes isoleucine-tRNA synthetase, which is aclass-1 amino acyl-tRNA synthetase. IARS2 mutations are reported to cause Leigh syndrome or cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysphasia syndrome (CAGSSS). To our knowledge, IARS2 mutations and[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Tonic status epilepticus (TSE) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not well recognized. The objective of this study is to report episodes of TSE in patients with IGE. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and EEG evaluation of three IGE patients who presented TSE. The three patients had mainly[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Focal discharges were more frequent in the frontal regions 19,25. They may be isolated spikes, sharp waves, slow waves, or spike-and-wave complexes 7,16,21.[scielo.br] In addition, the clinician may find slow sharp waves, bursts of slow waves, groups of sharp waves, groups of spikes, and a fast rhythm 25.[scielo.br]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Organic Brain Syndrome

    Abstract This study addresses the prevalence of organic brain syndrome (OBS) among long-term toluene-exposed rotagravure workers who are still working. The prevalence of OBS in 22 workers exposed to toluene for a minimum of 12 years and 19 unexposed control subjects, matched for age and employment status,[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Encephalopathy

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is an encephalopathy that can be clinically characterized by headache, altered mental status and/or seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrates usually reversible bilateral subcortical vasogenic occipital-parietal edema. Exact pathophysiology remains unclear but is commonly[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Uremic Encephalopathy

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Uremic encephalopathy is a metabolic disorder in patients with renal failure. The purpose of this study was to describe the MR imaging findings of uremic encephalopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed MR imaging findings in 10 patients with clinically proved uremic[…][ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb

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