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238 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb, Generalized Polyspikes, Photoparoxysmal Response

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The most common signs and symptoms in descending order are: asymmetric limb rigidity (100%), upper limb apraxia (91%), gait difficulties (89%), stimulation-sensitive focal[neuroweb.us] Photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) were noted in 18 (95%) patients with BAFME but 1 (10%) with EGTCS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Response 3 progressive myoclonus epilepsy Spastic Paraplegia with Myoclonic Epilepsy[rgd.mcw.edu]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    responses (PPRs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, photosensitivity and generalized polyspike-wave discharges provoked by eye closure are features of both epileptic syndromes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is commonly associated with photoparoxysmal response (PPR) with a reported prevalence of 25-42%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] These patients had no family history of epilepsy, normal neurological evaluation, normal neuroimaging, interictal EEG showing generalized spike- and polyspike-wave discharges[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    The EEG showed a photoparoxysmal response in over a quarter of the patients, and one in five displayed asymmetrical anomalies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] An EEG in untreated individuals is typically abnormal with a specific EEG pattern, known as a 3-6 Hz generalized polyspike and wave discharge.[epilepsy.com] The EEG has generalized spike or polyspike slow-wave complexes. JAE is a lifelong disorder, although seizures can be controlled in 70% to 80% of patients.[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 8

    With doses of up to 10 g/day, elimination of photoparoxysmal responses was achieved in all 3 patients.[karger.com] Waking electroencephalogram in a 24-year-old woman showing generalized polyspike-and-wave discharges on a slow background ( left panel ) with occasional focal occipital discharges[neupsykey.com] response Negative 6 and 20 Hz provoked a photoparoxysmal response Negative Brain MRI Mild atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem Not available Not available Not available[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    response Behavioral abnormality Nonprogressive Atonic seizures Pica Epileptic spasms EEG with irregular generalized spike and wave complexes Enhancement of the C-reflex Dysphagia[mendelian.co] […] spike-and-wave, or generalized polyspike-and-wave complexes.[jstage.jst.go.jp] EEG: Usually normal background, with generalized spike and wave or generalised polyspike and wave.[pennsw.com.au]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Epilepsy

    Berardelli, The Photoparoxysmal Response Reflects Abnormal Early Visuomotor Integration in the Human Motor Cortex, Brain Stimulation, 8, 6, (1151), (2015).[doi.org] Generalized polyspike-slow wave in EEG was common to see in myoclonic seizure and can help to make the classification.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] slowing MRI-normal C-VI-7 16 yrs 9 mths 10 yrs GTCS, abs, MJ, FS 9 mths Mild – 6 yrs: generalized slowing 15 yrs: generalized polyspike wave MRI-normal C-VI-8 12 yrs 6 mths[brain.oxfordjournals.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    VS belongs to various forms of human epilepsies and, as a trait, a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) or VS can be found in generalized or focal, idiopathic, cryptogenic, or symptomatic[epilepsyontario.org] Analysis of the ictal EEGs showed that all attacks corresponded to the generalized spike or polyspikes-and-wave complexes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] […] spikes or polyspike-wave discharges at 2-3 Hz with an absence of focal spikes; Exclusion of other syndromes, specifically, cryptogenic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, benign or[symptoma.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Photosensitive Epilepsy

    A flashing strobe light, for example, can trigger a photoparoxysmal response in a predisposed individual.[mdedge.com] However, today it is accepted that among responses to intermittent photic stimulation in untreated subjects, only generalized paroxysmal epileptiform discharges (spikes, polyspikes[medscape.com] […] spikes or polyspikes and waves.[dovepress.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome

    Background activity kept stable during the course of the disease; generalized paroxysmal discharges and photoparoxysmal response gradually disappeared with a significant difference[moh-it.pure.elsevier.com] There are generalized polyspike discharges at rest that are exacerbated by photic stimulation. Fig. 2 EEG of individual V-13 at age 35 years.[academic.oup.com] GLOSSARY ANOVA analysis of variance ; KM Kaplan-Meier ; PHT phenytoin ; PME progressive myoclonus epilepsy ; PPR photoparoxysmal responses ; PSW polyspikes and waves ; SSEP[n.neurology.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb

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