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294 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb, Multifocal Spikes, Photoparoxysmal Response

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The most common signs and symptoms in descending order are: asymmetric limb rigidity (100%), upper limb apraxia (91%), gait difficulties (89%), stimulation-sensitive focal[neuroweb.us] Photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) were noted in 18 (95%) patients with BAFME but 1 (10%) with EGTCS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Note the high-amplitude, disorganized slow activity with multifocal spikes with an electrodecremental response.[euroformhealthcare.biz]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    responses (PPRs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is commonly associated with photoparoxysmal response (PPR) with a reported prevalence of 25-42%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Photic stimulation disclosed a marked photoparoxysmal response, sometimes associated with myoclonic jerks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] METHODS: We studied 15 photosensitive IGE patients showing a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) to IPS at 20Hz.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 8

    With doses of up to 10 g/day, elimination of photoparoxysmal responses was achieved in all 3 patients.[karger.com] […] fast spikes, polyspikes and polyspike‐and‐wave discharges Slow background activity, spike‐ and polyspike‐and‐wave discharges and multifocal spikes activated by non‐REM sleep[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] responses in 3 patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.[karger.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    The EEG showed a photoparoxysmal response in over a quarter of the patients, and one in five displayed asymmetrical anomalies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Background activity is often abnormal, reflecting the diffuse or multifocal underlying encephalopathy of symptomatic generalized epilepsy.[reference.medscape.com] About a third of people with JME may show an abnormal EEG in response to flickering lights (called a photoparoxysmal response).[epilepsy.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Epilepsy

    Berardelli, The Photoparoxysmal Response Reflects Abnormal Early Visuomotor Integration in the Human Motor Cortex, Brain Stimulation, 8, 6, (1151), (2015).[doi.org] […] predominance, and multifocal spike-and-slow waves.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Electroencephalography showed multifocal spikes over the right frontal, temporal and parietal regions. The seizure frequency decreased dramatically after tumorectomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    response Behavioral abnormality Nonprogressive Atonic seizures Pica Epileptic spasms EEG with irregular generalized spike and wave complexes Enhancement of the C-reflex Dysphagia[mendelian.co] […] seizures with impairment of consciousness or awareness Spasticity Rare Symptoms - Less than 30% cases Abnormal pyramidal sign Generalized hypotonia Babinski sign EEG with photoparoxysmal[mendelian.co]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    VS belongs to various forms of human epilepsies and, as a trait, a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) or VS can be found in generalized or focal, idiopathic, cryptogenic, or symptomatic[epilepsyontario.org] Interictal EEG revealed generalized irregular multiple spikes-and-waves with focal or multifocal accentuations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ; LTG, lamotrigine; M, myoclonic seizure; MA, myoclonic-astatic seizure; MF, multifocal spikes; PHT, phenytoin; PSW, diffuse polyspike and wave complexes; SBA, slowing of[omicsonline.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Panayiotopoulos Syndrome

    response Increased epileptiform discharges in sleep state transitions Vaproate and levetiracetam good (lamotrigine can exacerbate myoclonus) – lifelong therapy Generalized[emilytam.com] Interictal EEG showed multifocal spikes in the centrotemporal and left posterior regions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Interictal EEG shows occipital spikes although multifocal spikes with high amplitude sharp-slow wave complexes at various locations can be present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Photosensitive Epilepsy

    A flashing strobe light, for example, can trigger a photoparoxysmal response in a predisposed individual.[mdedge.com] The interictal EEG showed generalized spike-and-wave alone in 8 patients, focal or multifocal spike-and-wave alone in 3 patients, both generalized and focal spike-and-wave[nature.com] The second patient's photoparoxysmal response was suppressed by both parallel-polarized and blue cross-polarized glasses, whereas the third patient's photoparoxysmal response[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb

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