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180 Possible Causes for Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb, Paroxysmal Activity - Spikes Parietal Right, Photoparoxysmal Response

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    The most common signs and symptoms in descending order are: asymmetric limb rigidity (100%), upper limb apraxia (91%), gait difficulties (89%), stimulation-sensitive focal[neuroweb.us] Photoparoxysmal responses (PPR) were noted in 18 (95%) patients with BAFME but 1 (10%) with EGTCS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Response 3 progressive myoclonus epilepsy Spastic Paraplegia with Myoclonic Epilepsy[rgd.mcw.edu]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    responses (PPRs).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is commonly associated with photoparoxysmal response (PPR) with a reported prevalence of 25-42%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Photic stimulation disclosed a marked photoparoxysmal response, sometimes associated with myoclonic jerks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Other characteristic EEG features include polyspikes, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, and photoparoxysmal response.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] PURPOSE: Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] METHODS: We studied 15 photosensitive IGE patients showing a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) to IPS at 20Hz.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    The EEG showed a photoparoxysmal response in over a quarter of the patients, and one in five displayed asymmetrical anomalies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] About a third of people with JME may show an abnormal EEG in response to flickering lights (called a photoparoxysmal response).[epilepsy.com] Intermittent photic stimulation induces an occipital photoparoxysmal response and may induce generalized discharges with a wide range of flash frequencies (5–40 Hz) ( Guerrini[academic.oup.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    response Behavioral abnormality Nonprogressive Atonic seizures Pica Epileptic spasms EEG with irregular generalized spike and wave complexes Enhancement of the C-reflex Dysphagia[mendelian.co] […] seizures with impairment of consciousness or awareness Spasticity Rare Symptoms - Less than 30% cases Abnormal pyramidal sign Generalized hypotonia Babinski sign EEG with photoparoxysmal[mendelian.co]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Epilepsy

    Berardelli, The Photoparoxysmal Response Reflects Abnormal Early Visuomotor Integration in the Human Motor Cortex, Brain Stimulation, 8, 6, (1151), (2015).[doi.org] Aria Fallah and Rajesh RamachandranNair, Does photoparoxysmal response in children represent provoked seizure?[dx.doi.org] Rothwell and Roberto Cantello, Overactive visuomotor connections underlie the photoparoxysmal response. A TMS study, Epilepsia, 56, 11, (1828-1835), (2015).[doi.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    VS belongs to various forms of human epilepsies and, as a trait, a photoparoxysmal response (PPR) or VS can be found in generalized or focal, idiopathic, cryptogenic, or symptomatic[epilepsyontario.org]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Encephalopathy

    response may occur in barbiturate withdrawal 25. * Practical Guide for Clinical Neurophysiologic Testing: EEG: Thoru Yamada MD. * Basic Principles, Clinical Applications,[slideshare.net] […] lasts for 2-3 weeks ,alpha became faster to beta frequency range, in sleep sleep spindles increases, acute withdrawal of bz leads to clinical seizures, photomyogenic and photoparoxysmal[slideshare.net]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    In a carefully screened population of young and middle age asymptomatic adults, Jabbari et al. 12 found an incidence of epileptiform activity, photoparoxysmal response or[scielo.br]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb
  • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 8

    With doses of up to 10 g/day, elimination of photoparoxysmal responses was achieved in all 3 patients.[karger.com] response Negative 6 and 20 Hz provoked a photoparoxysmal response Negative Brain MRI Mild atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem Not available Not available Not available[onlinelibrary.wiley.com] responses in 3 patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.[karger.com]

    Missing: Focal Dystonia - Upper Limb Paroxysmal Activity - Spikes Parietal Right

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