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173 Possible Causes for Focal Slow-Waves

  • Hydrocephalus

    Hydrocephalus is a clinical condition characterized by disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid regulation in the central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid regulation has three important steps - formation, flow and absorption. Infants with hydrocephalus presents with complaints such as poor feeding, vomiting, reduced[…][]

  • Stroke

    Slow-wave activity arising from the same area as epileptiform activity in the EEG of paediatric patients with focal epilepsy.[] Sharp or spike waves, TIRDA, FIRDA, focal slowing, diffuse slowing, and asymmetry had no significant difference between groups.[] Interictal The interictal EEG may be normal or may show focal interictal spikes or spike-and-wave over the location of the stroke.[]

  • Cardiogenic Syncope

    A standard EEG showed focal spike and wave with delta slowing on the right centrotemporal region (C4-T4).[]

  • Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    EEG showed focal slow waves and epileptic abnormalities on temporal regions in 1 patient and was normal in the other affected individuals.[] Inter-ictal EEG is often abnormal with focal slow waves and spikes over the affected temporal lobe.[] The rest have either slow- or sharp-and-slow wave discharges over a temporal lobe (usually on one side).[]

  • Epilepsy

    At 9 years, video EEG monitoring showed a striking pattern of interictal slow spike-wave and paroxysmal fast activity, maximal over the right, initially unaffected, hemisphere[] Transient outbreaks of spike-slow complex waves (1-2 s) were also noted in all leads.[] EEG recordings showed a variety of changes: generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity, focal discharges, focal or diffuse slowing or were normal.[]

  • Atrial Flutter

    ATRIAL TACHYCARDIAS ATRIAL FLUTTER ECG during carotid massage or iv. adenosine injection slows the ventricular rate and demasks atrial waves SVT with BBB : most BBB’s are[] Valvular heart disease Lack of sleep Table 2 : Differential diagnosis of atrial flutter and other arrhythmias NARROW QRS-COMPLEX TACHYCARDIAS WIDE QRS-COMPLEX TACHYCARDIAS FOCAL[]

  • Uncinate Seizure

    […] motor seizures Every few secs Responds poorly to meds LENNOX-GASTAUT Atonic -- tonic-clonic, MR Multi-focal slow spike/wave 1-2 Hz slow spike-wave 2-6 onset -- adult Valproic[] Acid second agent JUVENILE MYOCLONIC Focal muscle jerks (in AM), no LOC, o/w normal 4-6 Hz poly spike waves (frontal lobe) Teens Valproic Acid Keppra ATONIC SEIZURES / DROP[] […] seizures at night Gen: AD Stereotyped centro-temporal ditriphasic spikes 1-10 Self-limited Carbamazepine Valproic acid (if multiple) EPILEPSY PARTIALIS CONTINUA Persistent focal[]

  • Status Epilepticus

    EEG features such as triphasic waves and diffuse symmetric slowing can indicate a metabolic encephalopathy.[] Some of these instances are characterized by diffuse, slow ( 3 Hz) spike-and-wave activity, albeit with focal predominance.[] More focal changes such as focal slowing or periodic, lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are often seen in the setting of structural abnormalities.[]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Subtle focal abnormalities may be seen in 30%–50% of JME patients. 10 These may present as focal slow waves, spikes, or sharp waves or a focal onset of a generalised discharge[] Focal EEG abnormalities, consisting of transients of localized spikes, slow and sharp waves have been found in 16.5-36.7% of JME patients depending on the methodology applied[] Intermittent photic stimulation frequently precipitates spike and wave pattern more so in females than males.[]

  • Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Type 3

    EEG: Generalized almost symmetrical high-voltage polyspikes-and-wave along with frequent bilateral independent posterior dominant (T6, O2//T5, O1) focal spikes on a slow &[] EEG findings include slowing of background activity and bursts of atypical, irregular generalized spike-wave complexes, polyspike-wave complexes or sharp-slow wave complexes[] EEG revealed abundant generalized almost symmetrical high-voltage polyspike-and-wave along with frequent bilateral independent posterior dominant (T6, O2//T5, O1) focal spikes[]

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