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17 Possible Causes for Focal Spikes, Paroxysmal Activity - Spikes Central Bilaterally, Paroxysmal Activity - Spikes Temporal Bilaterally

  • Benign Adult Familial Myoclonic Epilepsy

    .  Previously called early-benign childhood seizures with occipital spikes  Childhood onset (peak 5 years).  Focal autonomic seizures or autonomic status epilepticus, frequently[] Between these bursts are inserted periods of variable duration without obvious paroxysmal discharges but with θ–wave activity of variable amplitude involving both central[] Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Some older children may have focal or generalised seizures.[]

  • Epilepsy

    Focal seizures began at 5 years and were refractory to medical treatment.[] (EEG) hallmark of focal-onset seizures is the focal interictal epileptiform spike or sharp wave.[] At 9 years, video EEG monitoring showed a striking pattern of interictal slow spike-wave and paroxysmal fast activity, maximal over the right, initially unaffected, hemisphere[]

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Abstract This chapter covers the syndromes of benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), nonlesional focal epilepsy in otherwise normal children (NLFN), and the genetic[] We compared the occurrence and involvement of posterior electrodes for focal abnormalities and generalised spike-wave activity in the EEG outside photic stimulation between[] […] discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).[]

  • Generalized Clonic or Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    - A current diagnosis of febrile seizures, or seizures related to an ongoing acute medical illness - Focal seizures (simple partial, complex partial, or partial becoming secondarily[] See epilepsy. atonic seizure an absence seizure characterized by sudden loss of muscle tone. focal motor seizure a simple partial seizure consisting of clonus or spasm of[] Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by the widespread generalized spike-and-waves (GSWDs) without detectable focal anatomical brain abnormalities ( Nordli[]

  • West Syndrome

    Brain MRI revealed no abnormal findings although interictal EEG demonstrated left centro-parieto-temporal localized spike foci.[] A “leading” spike had a focal origin in all 42 type I spasms and involved the pre‐ or postcentral gyrus within 0.1 s in 37 of these spasms.[] At time they appear to be focal, and a few seconds later they seem to originate from multiple foci.[]

  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Fragmented generalized spike-and-wave can appear focal or multi-focal but usually is not consistently seen in 1 area.[] The EEG signature of IGE is bisynchronous, symmetric, and generalized spike-wave complex; although focal, irregular, and so called "fragments" of discharges are not uncommon[] The morphology of the focal spike-and-wave typically appears similar to the generalized spike-and-wave. Ictal.[]

  • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy

    Although focal spikes can occur, if they consistently arise in 1 area, consider structural brain abnormality. Caution. If slow spike-and-wave ( Imaging.[] Previous clinical and EEG studies show a relationship between generalized and focal spike–wave discharges in some situations.[] Interictal and ictal EEG is characterized by focal generalized spike-wave discharge occasionally prominent in the frontal region.[]

  • Encephalopathy

    *Frontal dominance (FIRDA) --non specific ,diffuse encephalopathy, if focal ?[] *Repetitive and fairly stereotyped waveforms appearing at regular intervals, sharps/spike waves or complex discharges.[] *Transient phenomenon *May repeat as fast as 3/s or as slow as 10/sec *If focal or lateralized—PLEDS *If bilateral or independent – BIPLEDS as seen in in herpes and anoxic[]

  • Uremic Encephalopathy

    […] paroxysms of sharp waves and spike-waves during hyperventilation (HV). [38] In patients with cirrhosis, in addition to diffuse slow activity (theta and delta), triphasic[] […] of periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDS). [37] In hypokalemia, diffuse slow activity can be seen together with paroxysmal delta/theta activity, as well as focal[]

  • Organic Brain Syndrome

    Abstract This study addresses the prevalence of organic brain syndrome (OBS) among long-term toluene-exposed rotagravure workers who are still working. The prevalence of OBS in 22 workers exposed to toluene for a minimum of 12 years and 19 unexposed control subjects, matched for age and employment status,[…][]

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