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31 Possible Causes for Generalized Spike-and-Slow-Waves, Variable Psychomotor Retardation

  • West Syndrome

    Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: LGS is characterized by multiple types of seizures and an abnormal EEG with generalized slow spikewave discharges.[] […] clinical manifestations such as hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and feeding difficulties.[] Interictal EEG displays diffuse and asynchronous high voltage spikes and slow waves suggesting the hypsarrhythmic pattern. B.[]

  • Myoclonic-Astatic Epilepsy

    The interictal EEG revealed frequent bursts of generalized 100-200 μV, 2-4 Hz spike-and-slow-wave complexes.[] retardation mainly affecting speech.[] In the former, EDA were caused by epileptic spasms (ES) corresponding to generalized biphasic slow discharges, sharp-and-slow wave complexes, or the flattening of ongoing[]

  • Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Type 2

    EEG demonstrates primarily burst-suppression patterns in the neonatal period, hypsarrhythmia in infancy, and slow generalized spike-wave discharges in early childhood.[] […] degree of psychomotor delay and cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to severe mental retardation [23].[] ) discharges or generalized spike wave and polyspike wave activity.[]

  • Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy Type 13

    Ictal EEG recording may demonstrate generalized slow spike and wave, or an absence pattern, depending on the seizure type. 8.3.[] The majority of affected patients had mild to severe psychomotor retardation. Hypotonia, hypertonia and dystonia were common as well [ 9 ].[] slow spike-and-wave discharges Affected LGS patients have different degrees of developmental delay and they often develop autism and intellectual disability 43 Patients react[]

  • Hypothalamic Hamartoma

    Electroencephalogram showed abnormal generalized spike and slow wave discharges.[] From the earliest stages, 4 patients experienced psychomotor retardation. One female patient had a previous diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1.[] METHODS: Children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were defined by a triad of multiple generalized seizure types, slow spike-and-wave on EEG, and mental retardation.[]

  • Cri Du Chat Syndrome

    Interictal EEG demonstrated generalized spike and slow waves.[] […] a progressive severity of clinical manifestation and psychomotor retardation related to the size of the deletion (Mainardi et al., 2001).[] In fact, in 62 patients with terminal deletion, the degree of severity (for microcephaly, dysmorphism and psychomotor retardation) has been demonstrated to vary between patients[]

  • Severe Neonatal-Onset Encephalopathy with Microcephaly

    slow spike-and-wave discharges Affected LGS patients have different degrees of developmental delay and they often develop autism and intellectual disability 43 Patients react[] Rarely it is an etiology of psychomotor retardation of childhood. Lens dislocation outside of the neonatal period is a common finding but of variable onset.[] […] onset of LGS is mostly between 3-5 years of age 43 The incidence of LGS is estimated to be 1-10% of all childhood-onset epilepsies 43 EEG shows fast activity paroxysms and generalized[]

  • 2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria

    EEG findings included irregular background activity and slowing, focal or generalized spikes and slow wave discharges.[] Affected individuals have neurologic manifestations including mild-to-moderate psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, variable macrocephaly, and epilepsy ( , 2 – , 6[] Additional findings were macrocephaly, febrile or afebrile and partial or generalized seizures, which were well controlled with anticonvulsants.[]

  • Spastic Ataxia with Congenital Miosis

    Hyperventilation during EEG reveals a generalized 3 Hz spike and wave on normal background.[] […] age at onset (range childhood to adult) Cerebellar ataxia, Cayman type is characterised by psychomotor retardation, hypotonia and cerebellar dysfunction ( nystagmus, ataxic[] Hyperventilation during EEG reveals slow spike and wave pattern with frequency less than 2.5 Hz.[]

  • Autosomal Dominant Mental Retardation Type 21

    […] myoclonic seizures Urinary incontinence Focal-onset seizure Febrile seizures Epileptic encephalopathy Generalized-onset seizure Apraxia Hemiparesis Continuous spike and waves[] Psychomotor development is variably delayed and some but not all patients are mentally retarded. Microcephaly is a consistent feature.[] Systemic Features: There is both intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. Hypotonia is often noted along with general psychomotor delays.[]

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