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22 Possible Causes for Hemiplegia, Neuronal Loss and Gliosis in the Inferior Olives

  • Shy Drager Syndrome

    loss, gliosis, and microvacuolation in the involved neuronal systems.[emedicine.medscape.com] Patients with MSA-C primarily have shrinkage of the cerebellum, middle cerebellar peduncles, inferior olives, and basis pontis. [14] Histopathologic findings include neuronal[emedicine.medscape.com]

  • Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease

    & neuronal loss involving medial dorsal & anterior ventral thalamic nuclei & inferior olive; spongiform degeneration is minimal & focal VPSPr Median 70, 79 SD 9, 79 range[doi.org] The inferior olives also show similar lesions. Other brain regions are less affected.[doi.org] […] range 10–73 55 Heterogeneous, including dementia & ataxia; psychiatric & visual Sx are less common; sleep disturbances at early stages of disease are often not investigated Gliosis[doi.org]

  • Cerebellar Ataxia

    ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3-subunit of the Na( ) /K( ) -ATPase pump, has been involved in four clinical neurological entities: (1) alternating hemiplegia of childhood[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Microscopic examination of these structures reveals neuronal loss, axon and myelin degeneration, and gliosis.[neuropathology-web.org] This variant has not been reported in context with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism and alternating hemiplegia of childhood, the 2 main diseases associated with ATP1A3.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

  • Severe Neonatal-Onset Encephalopathy with Microcephaly

    Strokes that occur during or near the time of birth are often missed until the baby is 3 – 4 months old and hemiplegia is apparent in the baby.[abclawcenters.com] Postmortem examination of the brain in one child disclosed severe neuronal loss in the inferior olives and the pontine nuclei.[link.springer.com] Retardation Syndrome, X-Linked Alpha-Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome, Nondeletion Type ATR-X Syndrome ATRX ATR, Nondeletion Type 301040 Genetic Test Registry Alternating Hemiplegia[ukgtn.nhs.uk]

  • Autosomal Recessive Spinocerebellar Ataxia 8

    A novel nonsense mutation in CACNA1A causes episodic ataxia and hemiplegia. Neurology 1999 53:34-37 Ophoff RA and others.[tchain.com] Microscopic examination of these structures reveals neuronal loss, axon and myelin degeneration, and gliosis.[neuropathology-web.org] […] of childhood alternating hemiplegia syndrome, see alternating hemiplegia of childhood alveolar capillary dysplasia, see alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of[mygenomics.com]

  • Paraneoplastic Neurologic Syndrome

    Mutations in the gene encoding this neuronal surface protein have already been recognized as the cause of infantile alternating hemiplegia, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In addition, mild secondary neuronal cell loss with gliosis was noted in the dentate nucleus and inferior olive.[jneuroinflammation.com] Episodes can last from minutes to days and can be associated with, among other symptoms, hemiplegia and headache, including migraine.[jneuroinflammation.com]

  • Ataxia

    Febrile illness 1- 4 wks before onset of symptoms Lethargy/irritability to coma, associated with multiple neurological deficits inc pyramidal signs, optic neuritis, hemiplegia[rch.org.au] Microscopic examination of these structures reveals neuronal loss, axon and myelin degeneration, and gliosis.[neuropathology-web.org] Mutation in the glutamate transporter EAAT1 causes episodic ataxia, hemiplegia, and seizures. Neurology 2005 ; 65 : 529 –34 Bassi SS, Bulundwe KK, Greeff GP, et al.[ajnr.org]

  • Adult-Onset Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

    […] of childhood alternating hemiplegia syndrome, see alternating hemiplegia of childhood alveolar capillary dysplasia, see alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of[mygenomics.com] Microscopic examination of these structures reveals neuronal loss, axon and myelin degeneration, and gliosis.[neuropathology-web.org] Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Retinitis pigmentosa AR 14 21 ATCAY Ataxia, cerebellar, Cayman AR 1 3 ATM Breast cancer, Ataxia-Telangiectasia AD/AR 1047 1109 ATP1A3 Alternating hemiplegia[blueprintgenetics.com]

  • Hereditary Cerebellar Degeneration

    […] primary motor cortex can modulate the excitability of the motor cortex [ 125 ] and is often used as an effective tool for enhancing behavioral training after stroke with hemiplegia[intechopen.com] Microscopic examination of these structures reveals neuronal loss, axon and myelin degeneration, and gliosis.[neuropathology-web.org] Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Retinitis pigmentosa AR 14 21 ATCAY Ataxia, cerebellar, Cayman AR 1 3 ATM Breast cancer, Ataxia-Telangiectasia AD/AR 1047 1109 ATP1A3 Alternating hemiplegia[blueprintgenetics.com]

  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5

    "Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: no mutations in the second familial hemiplegic migraine gene ATP1A2". Neuropediatrics. 35 (5): 293–6. doi : 10.1055/s-2004-821082.[en.wikipedia.org] loss and gliosis.[link.springer.com] Attacks can be associated with dysarthria, diplopia, tinnitus, dystonia, hemiplegia, and headache. About 50% of individuals with EA2 have migraine headaches.[lacaf.org]

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