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723 Possible Causes for Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes, Speech and Language Abnormalities

  • Motor Neuron Disease

    […] tendon reflexes, and Babinski signs.[] In about 25% of cases, ALS begins with brainstem symptoms (dysarthria, difficulty swallowing) followed by extremity weakness.[] […] causes initially increased electrical excitability leading to fasciculations, and later muscle weakness and atrophy; upper motor neuron involvement causes spasticity, clonus, hyperactive[]

  • Alzheimer Disease

    Progressive apraxia of speech presents without true language abnormalities, usually seen with frontal lesions and not associated with AD pathology.[] His syndrome was characterized over the first 6 to 9 years by progressive deterioration of speech production, alteration of mood, and dysphagia but near normal language, memory[] At 8 years, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed largely frontal metabolic abnormality. Over his final 1(1/2) years, he was mute and withdrawn.[]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Stroke

    Spasticity is a common issue in chronic stroke. To date, no study has reported the long-term (up to 1 year) outcomes of Fu's subcutaneous needling in combination with constraint-induced movement therapy in chronic stroke. This report describes the successful addition of acupuncture on spasticity and arm function[…][]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Transient Ischemic Attack

    Patients rarely display eye movement dysfunctions as the primary symptom in transient ischemic attack. A 58-year-old patient with a history of hypertension and smoking presented with a 1-month history of paroxysmal exotropia of the left eye and double vision. No obvious abnormality was found in imaging examination[…][]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Dementia

    † Deceased. From University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; and Minneapolis VA Health Care System and HealthPartners, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Disclaimer: Findings and conclusions are those of the authors, who are responsible for the article's contents; findings and[…][]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Schizophrenia

    In another study, a comparison between FRS and language abnormalities obscures the fact that all patients included had at least 1 FRS ( table 1, no. 36).[] One study merges FRS and speech disorder ( table 1, no. 40), while another study merges FRS and bizarre delusions ( table 1, no. 33).[]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Transient ST-segment elevation may be caused by conditions other than myocardial ischemia, among them intracranial hemorrhage. Recognition of the underlying etiology of these ST-segment changes is key because of the vastly different therapies used to treat them. We describe the case of a patient with massive[…][]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Cleft Palate

    Speech and language delay Due to the opening of the roof of the mouth and the lip, muscle function may be decreased, which can lead to delayed or abnormal speech.[] Speech and language delay Due to the opening of the roof of the mouth and the lip, muscle function may be decreased, which can lead to a delay in speech or abnormal speech[]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes
  • Worster-Drought Syndrome

    & Language/Communication Difficulties Wide variety of Chromosomal Abnormalities/Disorders 48 XXYY syndrome / XYY syndrome Adjustment disorders Angelman syndrome Anxiety disorders[] brainstem reflexes (eg, jaw jerk), the dissociation of automatic and volitional movements of the bulbar muscles with preservation of automatic movements, and the absence[] speech and language development, epilepsy, and in certain cases, impairment of cognitive function and impaired mobility.[]

  • Sarcoidosis

    Abstract Purpose of review Surveillance of hepatic involvement in sarcoidosis has not been standardized. Therefore, management of hepatic involvement is a clinical challenge. This review analyses published data on the pharmacological treatment of hepatic sarcoidosis. Recent findings Only 5–30% of patients with hepatic[…][]

    Missing: Hyperactive Brainstem Reflexes

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