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153 Possible Causes for Hypercapnia, Hypokalemia, Pulmonary Embolism

  • Metabolic Alkalosis

    Hypokalemia seen with heat stress is secondary to sweat as well as renal potassium wasting.[] Chloride-wasting Diarrhea Villous adenoma of colon Renal Causes Diuretic use ( Urine Chloride 10 meq/L) Poorly reabsorbable anion Carbenicillin Penicillin Sulfate Phsophate Post-Hypercapnia[] Conditions commonly associated with respiratory alkalosis include pain, hypoxia, fever, high environmental temperature, poisoning, early pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism[]

  • Congestive Heart Failure

    In most cases, it is a result of diuretic therapy, which causes activation of the renin-angiotensin system, chloride depletion, increased distal sodium delivery, hypokalemia[] Important history questions include acuity of onset (acute pulmonary embolism), presence of chest pain (due to cardiac ischemia, acute pulmonary embolism), recent blood loss[] Other poor prognostic factors include left ventricular dysfunction with ejection fraction less than 20%, secondary renal insufficiency, hyponatremia and hypokalemia (with[]

  • Cushing's Disease

    Tw o also demonstrated personality changes, hypertension and hypokalemia, the last of these being rarely reported in patients with Cushing's disease.[] Ectopic ACTH secretion was initially suspected on the basis of very high cortisoluria and ACTH concentrations, severe hypokalemia, a lung hypermetabolic lesion and a normal[] The course of the disease was fatal, the patient died due to severe hypokalemia.[]

  • Respiratory Acidosis

    Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K( ) of 1.7 mEq/L).[] Moderate hypercapnia had no effect on these parameters.[] embolism).[]

  • Acidosis

    However, in severe cases accompanied by hypokalemia, correction of the hypokalemia may be necessary first.[] Patients receiving midazolam had a more than doubled risk of respiratory depression as mirrored by hypercapnia and acidosis, but not hypoxemia.[] Complications including pneumonia, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, infection, organ failure, acute renal failure, sepsis, and death were documented.[]

  • Asthma

    embolism and aortic dissection that can present with similar findings.[] Hamman's syndrome and reminds us of the need to distinguish such clinical findings from more important and potentially life-threatening conditions such as oesophageal rupture, pulmonary[]

  • Metabolic Acidosis

    In this Attending Rounds a patient with hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis is presented to emphasize the role of routine laboratory studies in the assessment of such patients[] Post-hypocapnia In prolonged hypercapnia renal tubular cells compensate for a prolonged respiratory alkalosis by decreasing reclaimation and generation of HCO 3 (which takes[] embolism, deep venous thrombosis, renal failure, multiorgan failure, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.[]

  • Alkalosis

    Idiopathic adipsic hypernatremia (AH) is a rare disorder associated with hypokalemia and alkalosis.[] Chloride-wasting Diarrhea Villous adenoma of colon Renal Causes Diuretic use ( Urine Chloride 10 meq/L) Poorly reabsorbable anion Carbenicillin Penicillin Sulfate Phsophate Post-Hypercapnia[] Hyperventilation may also be caused by asthma, congestive heart failure , pulmonary embolism , and pneumonia. Compare acidosis.[]

  • Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

    .  Hyperkalemia Hypokalemia  Hyperkalemia: affects Na channels and causes  depolarizaion . Na channels inactivate and refractory.[] The total CO2 returned at 33, suggesting chronic hypercapnia. A venous blood gas returned with pCO2 of 66, confirming present hypercapnia.[] Pulmonary embolism Common Causes Cardiac fibrosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) Cystic fibrosis High altitude [1] Mitral stenosis [2] Pulmonary hypertension[]

  • Diaphragm Disorder

    A: Treatable causes of diaphragmatic dysfunction include myopathies related to metabolic disturbances such as hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia[] Findings may also include worsening of hypercapnia and hypoxemia with sleep, frank respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, polycythemia, and abnormal chest[] Pulmonary Embolism . Infarction complicating pulmonary embolism is a well-recognized cause of pleural effusion.[]

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