Excess GH: 1) stimulates gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, causing hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acid levels; 2) leads to both hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance … The catabolic actions of growth hormone include insulin antagonism and lipolysis, with the net effect of promoting hyperglycemia. … Despite severe insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, ketosis is rare.
Complications Chronic hyperglycemia produces microvascular and macrovascular diseases. … Furthermore, hyperglycemia emerges when 80% to 90% of pancreatic beta cells have become damaged. … The vascular manifestations result from the effects of long-term hyperglycemia on protein glycosylation, sorbitol synthesis, and free radical production.